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PROGRESS TOWARDS EFA GOALS AND TARGETS [1990 – 1999].

6.1 Expansion of Early childhood and development Activities.

In 1992, the Government White Paper was finalized and it observed lack of government control of the quality of curriculum, teaching methods, facilities, age of entry, quality of teachers and the pre-school charges. The report gave recommendations and guidelines, which are being followed in order to achieve EFA goals and targets. A new National Curriculum for Early Childhood Education (ECE) has been produced for the first time in many years.

There are teacher training institutions for Early Childhood Education e.g Makerere University Child Study Centre, YMCA, YWCA, Sanyu Babies Home, Montessori (Entebbe), Nile Vocational Institute (Jinja), Human Resource Development (Hoima), ITEK, Nangabo, Madarasa and Makerere University external degree programme in the school of education. Other than ITEK and Makerere University, the rest are private initiatives. The number of registered pre-primary schools is 770 with an enrolment of 63,563 children. There are 1,985 trained teachers and 387 untrained teachers in the area of Early Childhood and Development.

The training of ECD teachers is done at the Institute of Teachers Education Kyambogo (ITEK), which provides a one year Nursery Certificate program, with senior four certificate being the entry qualification.

Table 1 shows student tutors who had Early Childhood Education as a subject

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total

Dip.Ed

35

26

38

43

21

32

25

40

24

-

284

B.Ed.

12

08

07

10

10

10

10

15

11

-

95

Cert, in

Nursery

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26

34

15

75

Source: Institute of Teacher Education Kyambogo

From Table 6, we note that trained teachers in ECE are still very few.

The training trend at ITEK reveals that very few teachers have been trained to handle ECD issues in our training institutions of higher learning.

The family and the community contribute to ECD especially for the 0-3 age group through provision of Maternal Child-Care (MCH). Childcare is one of the basic domestic responsibilities especially for women as mothers. Traditional forms of childcare are still very common.

There are very few Day Care Centers in urban areas. Some care givers are not trained and therefore Early Childhood Development issues are not adequately observed. There are Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs) and school management committees, and on school open days parents visit the schools and interact with the learners and teachers. They inspect the social aspects, learning experiences and learning environment at the pre-primary schools. They contribute to school construction work and also buy scholastic materials and pay tuition fees to their children. There is interaction at family level whereby children learn to live with one another. Also children are stimulated to learn their mother tongues through story telling by grand parents and parents. MoES has facilities established in all districts under the Education Assessment Resource Services (EARS) program. There are institutions for child-care by Non-Governmental Organizations working for disadvantaged children e.g. SOS Kakiri, Sanyu Babies Home, Salem Mbale, Nsambya Babies Home, e.t.c.

      1. Various qualitative factors and perceptions regarding the evolution of ECD Education in Uganda .

The beginning of pre-primary education in Uganda can be traced back to the 1930s initiated by the Europeans Missionaries, Goans and Asians who were already aware of the need and importance of preparing children early for formal education in their later years of education.

The pre-schools were private, established exclusively for the use of their own communities but in later years the Africans within urban areas were also allowed to take their children to these schools. The pre- school curriculum, including methods and scholastic materials for the learners used at the time was developed in Europe, with very little reference to the Ugandan situation.

Later when Africans became deeply involved in pre-school education, they opened up many uncontrolled pre-schools (Nursery) especially in urban centers often with poor premises, lack of educational materials, lack of trained teachers and often over-crowded.

Pre-schools were privately owned with the sole objective of preparing children for entrance into primary schools and overlooking the fundamental concept of childhood stimulation, psycho-social, mental and emotional development in ECD.

In 1973, the Government of Uganda became concerned and aware of the need for quality education in pre-schools. It enacted a statute which conferred upon the National Curriculum Development Center, mandate for designing and developing curriculum and support materials for all levels of education including pre-school.

In 1980, the responsibility for pre-schools was shifted from the then Ministry of Culture and Social Services to the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Ministry of Education and Sports recognizes the ECD period as extending up to age eight. It recommends the age of entry for pre-primary school to be three years. Enrolment in ECD programmes by age is given in table 7.

In 1992, the Government White Paper on the Education Policy Review Commission report was finalized and it observed lack of government control of the quality of curriculum, teaching methods, facilities, age of entry, quality of teachers and the pre school charges levied. The report gave recommendations and guidelines.

Table 2 Indicator 1 - Gross Enrolment Ratio in Early Childhood Development

Programme 1998

Enrolment

Official age-group

GER (Gross

(1)

Total

(2)

Pre-schools

(3)

Others

(4)

Population (or 3-5

(5) years)

Enrolment ratio)

3/5

TOTAL (MF)

5,484,293

63,563

5,420,730

2,272,444

2.80%

Male (M)

2,876,087

31,984

2,844,103

1,140,561

2.80%

Female (F)

2,608,206

31,579

2,576,627

1,131,883

2.79%

Source: Education Planning Department (1998 Educational Statistical Abstract)

Data for 1990 - 1997 are not available. Figures in Table 7 indicate that the GER is very low, the reason being that ECCD belonged to private institutions and it was not easy to locate where all the nursery schools are situated.

Indicator 2; Percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programme.

Time series data on this indicator are not available. However, few of the available data for the year 1998 show that not many children attend organised Early Childhood Development Programmes.

Children in Pre - School in 1998.

Age Bracket

Male

Female

Number

2 years and below

1,778

1,709

3,487

3 years

2,731

2,959

5,690

4 years

7,307

7,457

14,764

5 years

8,563

8,912

17,475

6 years and above

11,605

10,542

22,147

Total

31,984

31,579

63,563

Source: Education Census.

Those who attended pre - school in 1998 39,622 x 100 = 2.6 percent.

Number of pupils registered in P. 1 1999 1,529,411

Figure showing pre-children in school for 1998.

Of those enrolled in Primary One in 1999 only 2.6 % attended Pre - school. This is a very low proportion that should be improved upon.

6.2 Universal Access to, and Completion of, Primary Education by the Year 2000 Goals and Targets.

This section gives progress in achieving the goals and targets set for the above thematic area.

Table 3 Indicator 3: Apparent gross intake rates new entrants in primary 1 as a percentage of the population of official entry age.

 

New entrants: all ages

Estimated Population aged 6 years

GIR (%)

(New ent ¸ Est Pop)

 

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

M

F

T

1990

313,833

269,612

583,445

232,509

233,289

465,798

135

116

125

1991

303,970

264,876

568,846

285,063

290,664

575,727

107

91

99

1992

309,641

254,200

563,841

280,464

278,156

558,620

110

91

101

1993

277,116

243,066

520,182

311,332

318,266

629,598

89

76

83

1994

330,407

298,179

628,226

314,571

320,467

635,038

105

93

99

1995

394,070

351,266

745,336

321,539

324,991

646,530

123

108

115

1996

415,668

381,540

797,208

321,273

319,859

641,132

129

119

124

1997

1,003,220

948,498

1,951,718

334,693

332,992

667,685

300

285

292

1998

802,647

766,941

1,569,588

348,065

346,064

694,129

231

222

226

Source: Education Planning Department, MoES.

When comparing the number of new entrants in primary schools against the required age entry (6 years old population), it can be seen from Table 8 and Figure 2 that the gross intake rate (GIR) has varied between 125% in 1990 and 83 % in 1993 but on average it has been 140 % over the last nine years. By gender the females are fewer than the males. Results also indicate that GIR increased dramatically from 124 in 1996 to 292 in 1997 because of UPE.

Table 4 Net Intake rate (NIR) Indicator 4: new entrants to primary 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age as a percentage of the corresponding population.

 

New entrant aged 6 years

Population aged 6 years

NIR (%)

 

M

F

T

M

F

T

M

F

T

1990

83,703

74,652

158,355

232,509

233,289

465,798

26

32

34

1991

96,621

93,012

189,933

285,063

290,664

575,727

34

32

33

1992

103,772

91,791

195,563

280,464

278,156

558,620

37

33

35

1993

85,982

84,183

170,165

311,332

318,266

629,598

28

26

27

1994

119,537

108,959

228,496

314,571

320,467

635,038

38

34

36

1995

112,539

107,247

219,786

321,539

324,991

646,530

35

33

34

Source: Statistical abstract

When comparing the number of new entrants (age six), to the six year old population, which gives the Net Intake Rate (NIR), we see that there was a slight increase in the net intake rate between 1993 and 1995, from 27% to 34%. Over all, however, the net intake rate remains low over the period where data is available.

Figure Showing Net Intake Rate

Table 5

Indicator 5: Gross enrolment ratio (GER)

 

Enrolment P.1 to P.7

Population aged 6-12 years

GER(%)

 

M

F

T

M

F

T

M

F

T

1990

1,263,585

998,005

2,201,590

1,660,901

1,558,000

3,324,994

77

61

69

1991

1,303,306

1,236,243

2,539,549

1,670,905

1,666,201

3,337,106

78

74

76

1992

1,203,670

1,160,408

2,364,078

1,719,528

1,783,993

3,503,521

70

64

67

1993

1,492,630

1,182,335

2,674,965

1,741,794

1,807,093

3,548,887

85

65

75

1994

1,407,797

1,190,895

2,598,692

1,763,787

1,829,911

3,593,698

79

65

72

1995

1,587,216

1,325,257

2,912,473

1,790,502

1,859,115

3,649,617

86

72

72

1996

1,647,742

1,420,883

3,068,625

1,996,182

1,988,785

3,984,967

86

74

80

1997

2,855,093

2,315,813

5,170,886

2,077,312

2,069,513

4,146,825

137

112

124

1998

2,868,564

2,595,289

5,591,000

2,159,144

2,149,100

4,308,244

129

114

122

Source: Education Statistical abstract

Table 10 shows that the Gross Enrolment ratio has increased from 69% (1990) to 122% (1998) with fluctuations, but on average it was 95 %. The GER for males is higher than females throughout mainly because of the attitudes of sending more males than females to school.

A dramatic increase in enrolments is observed from January 1997 when Universal Primary Education (UPE) was introduced in the country. This scenario has been greatly facilitated by: government’s taking over payment of tuition fees for four children per family, government’s paying of teachers salaries regularly, government’s readiness to expand school physical facilities where the children learn, Government’s expansion of existing classrooms, completion of permanent classrooms, construction of new classrooms and willingness to construct needed additional new classrooms for purposes of achieving total UPE. Government’s commitment to heavily invest in primary education as already seen in 5.0 above is unquestionable. Local communities’ and international communities’ willingness to contribute to this noble enterprise – UPE, through the provision of instructional materials in form of textbooks have been overwhelming. A monitoring mechanism has been put in place to ensure the sustainability and improvement of UPE by tracking the flow, use of and accountability of funds for UPE.

Table 6 Net enrolment ratio (NER) Indicator 6

 

Enrolment 6-12 years

Population aged 6-12 years

NER 6-12 years (%)

 

M

F

T

M

F

T

M

F

T

1990

966,885

787,556

1,754,221

1,666,994

1,658,000

3,324,994

58

48

53

1991

952,416

849,763

1,802,179

1,670,905

1,666,201

3,337,106

57

51

54

1992

980,131

841,700

1,821,831

1,719,528

1,783,993

3,503,521

57

47

52

1993

908,840

783,837

1,692,677

1,741,794

1,807,093

3,548,887

52

43

48

1994

1,022,997

953,537

1,976,534

1,763,787

1,829,911

3,593,698

58

52

55

1995

1,092,206

988,076

2,080,282

1,790,502

1,859,115

3,649,617

61

53

57

1996

-

-

-

1,996,182

1,988,785

3,984,969

-

-

-

1997

1,905,185

1,718,501

3,623,679

2,077,312

2,069,513

4,146,825

92

83

87

Source: Education Statistical Abstract

Figures from Table 11 show that Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) has showed little change from 1990 - 1996; it was 53% in 1990 and 55% in 1995. However it was at its highest with 87% in 1997.

Table 7 Percentage enrolment by class and gender

Year

P.1

P.2

P.3

P.4

P.5

P.6

P.7

TOTAL

 

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

1990

54

46

55

45

55

45

56

44

56

44

57

43

62

38

56

44

1991

53

47

54

46

55

45

56

44

56

44

57

43

62

38

56

44

1992

56

44

55

45

56

44

57

43

58

42

59

41

62

38

58

42

1993

53

47

54

46

55

45

55

45

56

44

57

43

61

39

56

44

1994

53

47

53

47

54

46

54

46

55

45

56

44

60

40

55

45

1995

53

47

54

46

54

46

54

46

56

44

57

43

59

41

55

45

1996

52

48

53

47

53

47

54

47

55

46

56

44

60

40

54

46

1997

51

49

63

37

54

46

54

46

56

44

57

43

61

39

55

45

1998

51

49

51

49

52

48

54

46

54

46

56

44

56

44

53

47

Table 12 and Figure 3 show that during the last ten years, the percentage distribution of pupils by class and gender, females are lower than males in all classes and years. On average the gender ratio is 55% and 45% for males and females respectively.

Table 8 Regional differences in gross enrolment ratios by gender, 1990

 

MALES

FEMALES

TOTAL

 

6-12yrs

Population

Enrolment

%

6-12yr

Population

Enrolment

%

6-12yr

Population

Enrolment

%

Kampala

78,208

30,797

20

77,786

33,930

22

155,994

64,727

41

Central

400,039

244,615

31

397,884

250,183

31

797,923

494,798

62

Eastern

413,725

361,948

44

411,492

286,372

35

825,217

648,320

79

Northern

318,607

344,284

54

316,886

198,451

31

635,493

542,735

85

Western

456,415

335,077

37

453,952

281,257

31

910,367

616,334

68

Total

1666994

1316721

40

1658000

1050193

32

3324994

2366914

71

Source: Education Statistical Abstract

While looking at regional differences in table 13, Kampala being the capital city, has special urban characteristics. Problems associated with rural urban migration and high numbers of destitutes will quite often bring about a large number of street kids as well as child labour. Consequently, it is not surprising that that the gross enrolment ratio in Kampala is much lower when compared to other areas. It can further be seen that there were marked regional differences in GER by gender and total enrolment in 1990

Table 9 Regional gross enrolment rates

Region

1991

1995

 

 

 

Northern

71.8

56.3

Eastern

78.5

86.4

Central

76.7

88.9

Western

78.8

86

Total

76.5

79.4

Source. Educational statistical abstract

Looking at the regional gross enrolment rates for 1991 and 1995; we note from table 14 and Figure 4 that GER for the Northern region, which was as high as 71.8% in 1991, had significantly reduced to as low as 56.3% by 1995. One of the possible causes of this fall is the insurgency that has been in the region for many years now. This insurgency has forced many children out of school. For all the other regions, the gross enrolment ratio has increased over the same period.

Table 10 Pupil/School Ratios

Year

No. of Primary

Schools

No. of Pupils

Pupils/school

Ratio

1990

7,667

2,281,590

298

1991

8,046

2,539,549

316

1992

8,325

2,364,078

284

1993

8,430

2,674,965

317

1994

8,442

2,598,692

308

1995

8,531

2,636,409

309

1996

8,531

3,068,625

360

1997

8,813

5,170,886

587

1998

9,848

5,463,853

555

1999

10,779

6,591,429

596

In Table 15 and Figure 5, we note that the Pupil school ratio increased from 298 (1990) to 554 in 1998, the ratio raised sharply from 360 in 1996 to 587 in 1997 because of UPE which started in 1997



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