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During this decade, NGOs, communities and private providers/individuals have started to offer training in vocational skills, in response to the high demand. Target groups include boys, girls, men women, dropouts from primary and secondary schools, orphaned children, and destitutes. Age of trainees range from 14-25 and occasionally includes older adults.

Skills areas are mainly courses in crafts skills such as masonry, carpentry joinery, cabinet-making, welding, electrical installation, metalwork, painting, tiling, tailoring, weaving, leathercraft, motor vehicle and bicycle repair, mechanics and agricultural skills like animal husbandry, organic farming and general agriculture. Office skills such as secretarial skills, typing and home economics, catering, food processing, baking and health care, nursery and basic nutrition are also offered

Apprenticeship constitutes a major way in which people enter the informal sector in Uganda. Few initial skills, experience or qualifications are required for entry. The apprentice merely has to locate a willing master, often a relative, pay fees usually associated with such training and be willing to undergo an extended period of training.

An analysis of this sector-entry skills by entrepreneurs carried out by the USAID study in 1994 showed that in general 67.4% of the workers enter the sector without any skills, while 16% start their own enterprises after apprenticeship with high proportions relocating in rural areas (77.3%). A small random sample of manufacturing and service enterprises in Kampala carried out by GTZ in 1996 confirmed this trend. A survey carried out on "Needs Assessment of Small-Scale industries" in 1995 on 224 enterprises in Kampala recorded that 73% of the entrepreneurs stated skills training as a need which the informal sector will continue to provide.

Over the past five years Government has realised that training and imparting skills to individuals constitute an engine of growth, but at the same time it is a task which it cannot manage, co-ordinate and accomplish in isolation.

Consequently the government convened a National Conference on Technical, Industrial and Vocational training (30 November – 3 December 1993) in Uganda. Over 150 participants attended it from a wide spectrum of society including policy makers, industrialists, professional organisations, educators, NGOs, civil society and informal sector workers. A number of recommendations were made pertaining to co-ordination and management with respect to acquisition of basic skills through training.

The most pertinent recommendations included: development of a national technical and vocational educational and training policy; promotion and widening of technical and vocational education and training; promotion of the activities of the Federation of Informal Sector Association (FISA), strengthening the existing organisations and institutions such as Uganda Small Scale Industries Association (USSIA) and Uganda Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the training and development of a skilled and proficient workforce in technical and vocational sub-sector. Programmes preparing for occupations in small-scale industries, or artisans trades, whether urban or rural, particularly for self-employment, should include commercial business skills.

6.6 Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living, made through education channels.

Policy and regulatory mechanisms on the media

The government has liberalised media which has encouraged development of private, and community media, both electronic and print media. Currently, there are FM radio signals in almost every region of the country. There is also an expansion on national public media, (i.e. Radio Uganda and UTV) area coverage. Currently Radio Uganda covers 90% of the country, and UTV covers 65% of the country and the signal distributed via satellite will soon reach all corners of Uganda.

Government has put in place a legal framework on media, in which the press and journalists statute (1995) and electronic media statute (1996) have been established to regulate and ensure proper use of media.

Innovative approaches to better living

Public radio and UTV have put up a section to handle educational broadcasting programme to sensitize, mobilise and educate the public. These sections handle programmes focussing on issues such as:

Other innovations include:

There is increased, extensive use of posters announcements, theatre libraries especially in urban areas. There has also been tremendous increase in the media establishments in the country. Whereas in 1990 there was one Radio station and one Television station, presently, there are more than three television stations where various channels are availed, and more than 13 radio stations in the country.

The Ministry of education has since 1963, supplemented classroom teaching for schools and colleges. Today the Ministry is working at reviving this service and strengthening the broadcasting unit. This is particularly important as other distance education programmes would benefit from a strengthened broadcasting unit.

In most media there has been an inclusion of programmes in electronic media and columns in print specifically meant for women. These have raised public awareness on women issues. Others are specifically for children and youth.

An institute of Distance and Adult Education has been established and distance education courses and external programmes are conducted at Makerere University. These have increased access to University education and have developed flexible mode of study for adults who may have missed a chance to enter University but hold the minimum requirements. Previously, many students were left incapable of pursuing University education. Increasing enrolments in external degree courses, as shown in table 41, is one way in which more students can access University education.

Table 1 shows the total number of students admitted on the course since 1992.

B’COM EXT

B’ ED EXT

YEAR

ADMITTED

YEAR

ADMITTED

1991/92

198

1991/92

112

1993/94

178

1993/94

194

1994/95

120

1994/95

212

1995/96

233

1995/96

270

1996/97

600

1996/97

1000

1997/98

693

1997/98

750

1998/99

980

1998/99

750

At present plans are underway to expand the courses. The proposals in the pipeline include LLB Bachelor of Law and Bachelor of Environmental Studies. Some of the benefits of the external degree programme are outlined below:

It is therefore evident that the external degree programme, fall in line with Government intention and the joint declaration to provide education for better living.

The World Bank has also invested in Education for better living through media by establishing a satellite based distance education project through African Virtual University. The objectives of the African virtual University are to:- significantly increase the enrolment levels of scientists, technicians, business managers etc, improve quality and relevance of science, business and engineering instruction in sub-Saharan Africa, provide an academic environment in which African educational institutions, faculty and students can participate effectively in the world-wide community of learning, research and dissemination of knowledge, make use of available information technology to enhance and provide opportunity for interactive learning.

Three centres for the African Virtual University have been established at: Uganda Polytechnic Kyambogo, Uganda Matyrs' University Nkozi and Makerere University Kampala. The participating African Countries in the African Virtual University include: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Uganda. Its mission is to use the power of modern information technologies to increase access to educational resources throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

The progress towards attainment of strategies outlined above shows that by improving the situation of the individual, through education or creating awareness, the living conditions of the individual and the community around him improve.

Under the Basic Education and Child Care and Adolescent Development (BECCAD) Programme, a manual and other support materials on life skills for out-of-school young people were produced and distributed. The programme helped orient and train representatives of 20 NGOs in the use of these materials. Preparatory research to guide the development of life-skills materials for children, parents and community members was completed in four regions of the country.

With the support of the BECCAD Programme, training of tutors and teachers in life skills for primary and secondary schools was undertaken. Nearly 75 percent of all Primary Teacher Colleges (PTCs) responsible for pre-service training of primary school teachers and all National Teachers Colleges (NTCs) responsible for training secondary school teachers participated. A decision has been reached by Government to maintain life-skills education in all tertiary institutions and secondary schools.

Informal sector activities are growing and attracting many young people (primary school graduates, secondary school dropouts and the illiterates). Activities in this sector are steadily increasing through rationalization and flexibility of the sector’s structures.

7.0 EFFECTIVENESS OF THE EFA STRATEGY, PLAN AND PROGRAMMES.

7.1 Expansion of Early Childhood and development Activities.

The soundness of agreed strategy, plan and major programs in view of current conditions is reflected in the existence of the pre-primary curriculum and in the mushrooming of ECD schools (nurseries, day-care centres) in and around municipalities and towns. The number of children going to these schools has also increased. However, the implementation of the strategy in rural areas is constrained by inadequate funds and lack of trained teachers of ECD.

The principal achievements since 1990 have been the production of a national ECD curriculum which had been non-existent hitherto, the initiation of teacher training programme for ECD tutors and teachers at ITEK, the establishment of ECD department at the MOES and training ECE tutors at degree, diploma and certificate levels at ITEK.

Recognition of family contributions.

The family and the community contribute to ECD especially for the 0 - 3 age group through provision of Maternal Child Care (MCH). Child care is one of the basic domestic responsibilities especially for women as mothers. Traditional forms of child care are still very common. They include:

There are no facilities at the places of work and a few Day Care Centers are concentrated in urban areas. Care givers are not trained and therefore Early Childhood Development issues are not adequately observed.

Parents and community members’ linkages with pre-school.

There is interaction at family level whereby children learn to live with one another. Also children are stimulated and learn their mother tongue. Story telling to children by grand parents and parents is a common family practice.

Children join pre primary school and undergo a prescribed curriculum to develop a child holistically. However, of recent, there is a danger of commercialization of these institutions. The profit motive tends to jeopardize the ECD service demands.
ECD policy regulatory mechanism.

The Government White paper on Education contains ECD policy but it has been partially implemented. The Ministry of Education and Sports is responsible for development and dissemination of policy on ECD. Among other things they are responsible for monitoring, supervision and inspection of pre - school programs. Other regulatory mechanisms include:- the stipulated age, supervision, coordination, standards, quality and fees rates that are controlled by the government.

The involvement of the family and community in ECD centers.

There is more emphasis on academic than other areas due to demand for P 1 entrance examination oriented requirements. There are community based programs for ECD managed by NGOs e.g. Madrasa Resource Center, Feed the Children, World Vision, Christian Children Fund, Mother Child Day Care Centers, Sunday School programs etc.

Disability detection

MoES has facilities established in all districts under the EARS program. The Uganda society for disabled children works with communities to raise awareness on available services and on the rights of children with disabilities.

How Disadvantaged children are catered for.

There are institutions for child care for the years 0 – 6 and Non - Governmental Organizations working for children e.g. SOS Kakiri, Sanyu babies home, Salem Mbale, Nsambya Babies Home.

7.1.1 Training for ECD providers.

Training of teachers and nurses was part of government responsibility in the management of day care centers. There are still very few trained pre school teachers e.g. in 1998 Education planning Department figure indicated that Grade III and ordinary level leavers dominated pre school teaching while 12 % are untrained. This is illustrated in table 42.

Table 2. Number of Teachers by training:

Level

Number

Grade II/III

1134

Grade V

61

Graduates

36

Trained with O’Level

683

Trained A’Level

71

Untrained

387

Total

3272

Source: Education Census 1998.

7.2 Universal access to, and Completion of, Primary Education by the Year 2000 Goals and Targets.

At its initiation in January 1997 the concept of UPE was not understood by everybody, it meant different things to different sets of people. At individual level UPE was understood as basic education for all school going age children. At community level UPE was understood as government paying school fees for children, while at political level UPE is understood as government paying school fees for four children per family. It was therefore agreed at the National Conference in September 1998 that there was need to spell out that what we have is a transitional stage, but we are working towards universal education. Teams needed to be sent out to educate and sensitise the public and all operators of education.

In rural sedentary area of Mbarara district, schools started off well and the registration returns were good. Parents and communities, overwhelmingly and with great enthusiasm were happy with the programme [Proceedings of the National Conference on Universal Primary Education (UPE) Programme, September 1999, Pg.82]

There is fair consensus among educational planners, thinkers, policy makers and other stakeholders in education in that knowledge being imparted in primary educational institutions is neither effectively organized to fulfill the needs of the present and those of the foreseeable future. The UPE Conference participants observed that:

  • "Quality of education with UPE is reduced because the teacher/pupil ratio is increased and a level of concentration is lowered. The literacy level is increasing, where a great number of people are given education than in ordinary provision of primary education" (p.104).

  • It was also observed that facilities are lacking therefore learning is interfered with. For example, basic necessities for learning such as food, shelter, clothing are lacking. Girls were noted to be worst struck by this factor where lack of underwear for example, stigmatized the pupil, hence impeding her from learning effectively and freely (p.125). The main cause was noted to be lack of awareness among the parents, especially in rural areas.

    The UPE programme has been good within the frame of current conditions of abject poverty. The country is not all that rich to provide free and compulsory education to all its school going age children.

    At the beginning of UPE the required resources were marshalled from within and this certainly stretched the country’s resource envelope. As the strategy, plan and programme unfolded, additional resources were acquired and currently UPE programme is priority number one as already seen in the MTBF. Admittedly there is evidence of UPE funds having been misused, diverted and even embezzled. Initially there were no clear instructions on who should implement UPE and control its funding. (Proceedings of the National Conference on UPE, p.103). However, corrective measures have been instituted for funds to be used and accounted for appropriately. Funds have come from WB, Irish-Aid, DANIDA, BDFID, USAID, the EU and other donors.

    The Results Obtained (e.g. were the results in proportion to the effort made, satisfactory or disappointing?)

    The results were dramatic and beyond expectations. For example: dramatic accessibility was provided to the point that enrollment more than doubled in January 1997, thus opening the door even for the disadvantaged to access primary education. The expansion of existing educational facilities and establishment of new primary schools to accommodate the new entrants were among the immediate government undertakings.

    What are the Two or Three Principal Achievements of Universal Primary Education since 1997?

    The achievements are (i) the dramatic massive access to primary schooling by children of school-going age 6-13 (ii) the sustained effort to retain these children in the primary schools and make them complete the primary cycle of education; and (iii) Provision of necessary minimum educational facilities to facilitate accessing to, retention in, and completion of the primary cycle of education.

    7.3 Improvement in Learning Achievement.

    Government is firmly committed to improve the quality of education and to bring about improvement in pupils’ learning achievements and outcomes. For this matter, Government set up various strategies, plans and programs that are realistic and on course. The results are generally satisfactory rather than disappointing and thus reflect the effectiveness of the Government strategies, plans and programmes.

    The Primary Education and Teacher Development Project (PETDP) is in place and it is a project funded by the World Bank. The project period is 1992/93 to 1999/2000 FY. Total amount is US$ 52.791m (PIU,1999). It is co-financed by USAID (US$25m) and the Government counterpart funding (PIU,1999) targets have been met and surpassed. The project is divided into the following components:

    This programme has the ultimate goal to improve the quality of primary education in Uganda through: in-service Teacher Education Programme, Curriculum and Instructional Materials Development management training and community mobilisation. All these activities are implemented through an integrated network system of Core Primary Teachers Colleges (PTCs) and Co-ordinating Centres. The most instrumental person in this Reform Programme is the Co-ordinating Centre Tutor (CCT). This change agent accomplishes his/her roles through continuous interaction with the teachers, Headteachers, school community leaders and District officials.

    Table 43 shows the progress made by the Primary Education and Teacher Development Project (PETDP) under which the TDMS network lies.

    Table 3 Uganda Primary Education and Teacher Development project (PETDP)

    Key Performance Indicators

    Component/Indicator

    Original Targets

    Achievement by

    31-8-99

    Percentage

    performance

    by 31-8-99

     

    Projected Targets

           

    June 1999

    Sept 99

    Dec 99

    Classroom construction

             

     

    Classrooms completed

    2691

    2029

    75%

    1620

    2150

    2400

    Coordinating centres

    Completed

    250

    143

    57%

    143

    190

    190

    PTCs completed

    10

    1

    10%

    1

    3

    6

    PTC overall construction

    100%

     

    60%

    50%

    75%

    80%

     

    TDMS

               

     

    TDMS network

               
     

     

     

             

    Component/Indicator

    Original Targets

    Achievement by 31-8-99

    Percentage performance

    Projected Targets

    Core PTCs established and

    Operating

    10

    18

    180%

    18

    18

    18

    Coordinating centres

    establishd and operating

    250

    539

    216

    539

    539

    539

    In-service training enrollment

               

     

    Up-grading of untrained

    Teachers

    5000

    1388

    278%

    13533

    13533

    13186

    Headteacher training

    8000

    17451

    218%

    16578

    15750

     

           

    June 1999

    Sept 99

    Dec 99

    Education managers (PTCs,

    Districts)

    330

    108

    33%

    108

    270

    330

    In-service training completions

             

     

    Up-grading of untrained

    teachers (3 year course)

    5000

    2023

    60.5

    3023

    3023

    3023

    Headteacher training (1 year

    course)

    4152

    3863

    93%

       

     

    Education managers (PTCs,

    districts)

    330

    108

    33%

    108

    270

    330

    Examination

               

    National assessment (P3,P6 in

    4 core subjects)

     

    On-going

         

     

    Continuous assessment (item

    design)

     

    On-going

         

     

    Continuous assessment teacher

    Orientation

     

    P5-7

       

    P1-P4

     

    Management information

    System

     

    Contract

       

    System test

     

    Curriculum development

               

    Syllabi for 4 subjects

    Developed

     

    Being

    disseminated

           

    Time taken to develop the

    syllabi (months)

               

    Instructional materials

               

    Supplementary readers

    Distributed

    710,256

    Ratio 3:1

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

       

     

     

     

     

    June 1999

    Sept 99

    Dec 99

    Component/Indicator

    Original Targets

    Achievement by 31-8-99

    Percentage performance by 31-8-99

    Projected Targets

    Procurement of textbook in

    the 4 core subjects rate

     

    1:7 Science/SST

    1:5 Maths/Eng

    60%

    1:5 Science/SST

    1:4 Math/Eng

    1:4

    1:4

    Strengthening Policy and Planning

             

     

    School mapping/head

    count/census

     

    Nationwide

     

    Integrated with EMIS

     

    Education census

     

    Nationwide

     

    Integrated with EMIS

     

    EMIS

     

    Consultants on

    Board

     

    Consultants

    On board

    Preliminary

    Design test

     

    Source: Project Implementation Unit.



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