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Part I: Descriptive Section

Introduction

1. Analysis of processes in the Ukrainian educational system of the nineties

 SUMMARY

In Ukraine of the 90-s the Formal Basic Education (FBE) underwent the process of reforming. The vector of changes focused on transition from the "Soviet school " model to the democratic European one.

Centralised financing and management of education, authoritarian pedagogy and stressing of Mathematics and Natural Sciences noticeably give up place to the elements of decentralisation, pedagogy of co-operation (usage of humanistic paradigm and accentuation of rights of a child), to ensuring the balance between humanitarian and natural sciences subjects in curricula of schools. Participation of Ukraine in the international co-operation in the sphere of education and all forms of contacts and exchanges of Ukrainian pedagogues and institutions with foreign ones constantly increase.

For the beginning of the 21-st century a profound reform of the system of general secondary education is planned in Ukraine. It envisages changes of the school structure and aims of its activities, updating contents of a number of subjects, forms and methods of training. The ultimate goal of the reform is to upgrade quality of secondary education under keeping of enrolment of the 6-18 age group by free-of-charge education.

 Description of the processes in 1990-1999

Ukraine took part in elaboration and adoption of the World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs in the city of Jomtien (Thailand, March 5-9, 1990) as a member of the UN among other countries of the world.

Before 1991 the system of education in Ukraine was a part of a wider one, which covered the whole territory of the USSR.

Disintegration of the USSR and the appearance of a group of independent states (Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) caused a severe crisis in these countries, the decline in agrarian and industrial production, decrease of living standards and so on. The crisis and the cut of state budget affected negatively the education system of independent Ukraine.

At the moment of the declaration of independence the Ukrainian system of education was a large-scale one and exceeded an average world level by many parameters. The achievements of "education for all " (EFA) - a system of compulsory education, which covered the age group of 7-17, and education for adults (Continuous Education) - were especially impressive.

Since Ukraine presented annually the quantitative characteristics of its system of education to the UNESCO reports they are available in the year-books of this international organisation. In view of this we shall limit ourselves to the generalising data concerning the system of education at the beginning of independence of Ukraine (Table 1 and 2 and Diagram 1). The whole system consisted of three large co-ordinated sectors:

The three sectors of education, we have specified, were completely state ones.

The Tables 1, 2 and the Chart 1 show the amount of students of secondary schools and students of high institutions in all three sectors of the system of education in Ukraine at the beginning of the 90-s.

 Table 1. The quantitative characteristics of the system of education in Ukraine (1991)

Names of the parts of the formal sector of the system of continuous education

Amount of institutions

Amount of staff

Amount of students

1. Pre-school education

23 183

241 400

1 918 000

2. Schools of all types ( general secondary education)

22 279

582 000

7 124 900

3. Institutions of basic vocational training

1 176

60 500

583 400

4. Institutions of post secondary vocational training

737

51 200

680 700

5. High educational institutions (HEI) ( of all types but military)

161

69 700

829 200

6. Institutions of post-graduate training of all types

1 549

23 000

2 600 000

7. Out-of school educational institutions of all types

1 645

54 000

1 584 000

8. Post-graduate courses

331

11 000

9. Doctor’s courses

111

600

(10.) Research institutions and departments of institutions of other types

More than 70

70 000

Total

50 500

1 082 000

15 334 000

Table 2. Ukraine: post-graduate training of adults (1991/92)

 Names of the parts of the system of education

Amount of institutions

Amount of staff

Amount of students

  1. The system of training of specialists with Diploma of higher education:
  1. Institutes and centres;
  2. Special department of HEI;
  3. courses and lectures.

Total

 

 

127

198

224

549

 

 

23 000

 

 

240 000

60 000

300 000

600000

2. The system of training of specialists without Diploma of higher education:

  1. professional institutions;
  2. institutions of different departments.

Total

 

 

1 000

450

1 450

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 000 000

 The events of the 90-s in the system of education of Ukraine can be divided for several successive stages of changes and reforms which differ by priorities, forms of realisation and the achieved results.

At the first stage of 1991-93 the leaders of Ukraine created new structures of management of education with its material and methodological provision. The President by his Decrees established the general Ministry of Education of Ukraine in 1991 and the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences in 1992. In this period the Supreme Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine passed the basic educational laws thus ensuring legal grounds of state and non-state institutions’ activities.

Development of a detailed plan of reforming and transformation of the system of education from the "Soviet" into the national one became one of the main priorities of the Government and new top officials of the Ministry of Education. In December 1992 the first Congress of Pedagogical Workers of Ukraine was organised in Kiev for drafting this plan. On November 3, 1993, after consideration of proposals of the Congress participants, the plan of reforms was adopted by the Government as the State National Program "Education" (Ukraine of the 21st century) [4].

During 1991-93 within the framework of the plan of reforms the curricula of humanitarian subjects were revised and the state support for establishing and extension of activities of independent (private) educational institutions of different levels was rendered.

The second stage of changes in the system of education in Ukraine ended at the beginning of 1995 when the top officials of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine were replaced. It comprised the adoption by the Government of resolutions and orders concerning execution of educational laws and the State National Program "Education" provisions. The system of training of scholars was revised, the multi-level system of higher education was introduced, the problem of provision of educational and cultural needs of ethnic and linguistic minorities was solved, the process of depolitisation and deidelogisation of the system of compulsory education was completed. The sector of non-state education (mainly of higher education specialising in training of economists and managers) operated in rather favourable conditions.

The third stage of evolution of the system of education in Ukraine of 1995-96 became the period of "stagnation" and partial losses of the achievements of the previous years. It was caused by cut of financial and other resources of state bodies as well as by insufficient reformatory activities of the new top officials of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine. At that time the President of Ukraine and his Administration became initiators of changes. According to the fulfilment of the President’s decrees the serious reforming of the system of vocational training and development of a network of institutions of higher education began.

 

The Supreme Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine adopted a new variant of the Law on Education [2], which took into consideration new realities of a social and economic situation of Ukraine.

The fourth stage which began in 1997 and goes on now is characterised by the fact that changes in the system of education are a consequence of significant (by various estimations - in 3-4 times) reduction of its financing from the state budget. Unfortunately transferring of the responsibility for provision of schools to the local budgets and expansion of paying education in higher educational institutions can not solve the problem of funds shortage. Since 1998/99 academic year the higher education in Ukraine began to change into a paying one - more than 50 per sent of students of the first year of studies paid for their training.

The decision concerning working out of the direct effect laws for all levels of the system of education were among the positive phenomena of this period. First of them (concerning activities of the system of secondary vocational training) was adopted by the Supreme Rada (Parliament) in 1998 [5], the second one - "On General Secondary Education " - in June 1999 [3]. A few others are to be adopted in the nearest future.

The Chart 2 shows the structure and characteristics of the system of education in Ukraine in 1998. The comparison of both diagrams shows, that the largest quantitative losses were on pre-school education and the system of secondary vocational training. Financing, possibilities and quota of non-formal (out-of-formal school) sector were reduced, the information and educational influence of mass media ( informal sector) decreased, circulations of pedagogical newspapers and magazines lowered. The analysis of other changes in the system of education of Ukraine in 1990-1999 will be made below.

The adoption in 1999 of the "Law on General Secondary Education" became a significant event in education [3]. Together with the "Law on Education" [2] it lays down the legal foundation of secondary education reforming. It envisages significant changes in structure, duration and contents of formal basic and upper secondary education. The reform will begin in 2001 and will last for more than 10 years.

The Law on General Secondary Education in Ukraine stipulates that training in the elementary school is to last ( level 1 of the International Standard Classification of Education ( ISCE) 4 years. It stipulates that the majority of children should begin training at the age of 6 and the rest - being 7 years old. The moment of beginning depends on a level of mental and physical development of a child and his readiness to master a school curriculum.

The basic (low secondary) school will consist of 5 forms and will provide with the basic general secondary education (level 2 of ISCE). Together with the elementary school it will provide with almost identical formal basic education for the overwhelming majority of children of the age group of 6-7 till age of 15-16.

The upper secondary school (level 3 of ISCE) in the first decade of the 21-st century will be transformed into a three-year one and will provide mainly with specialised training. An amount and specification of profiles will be defined later. Within the framework of each of them the students will study groups of subjects with the purpose of further training in higher educational institutions (universities, academies and institutes). Thus, stipulation of the provisions of the Law on General Secondary Education will make 12-years school obligatory for all children, will approach the system of education in Ukraine to European standards and will guarantee implementation of the goals of the 1990 World Declaration on Education for All more full and more qualitatively.

 1. Goals and targets of " Education for All "

1.1. The Jomtien Declaration and education in Ukraine in 1990.

One of the basic provisions of the World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs adopted in Jomtien (Thailand, March 5-9, 1990) was a formulation of aims, approaches, mechanisms and ways of implementation of its noble proposals into life. The representatives of the Soviet Union (Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus) participated in the conference.

The system of education of Ukraine was a constituent part of the whole educational system of the Soviet Union. In the USSR at the end the 80-s the provisions of the Jomtien Declaration on Education for All were implemented in many aspects. It is clear, that the mentioned above concerned also the territory of Ukraine of the 90-s as well.

Thus, Article ? of the World Declaration "Meeting Basic Learning Needs" within the framework of an overall goal of EFA formulates four more narrow aspects.

    1. Provision of basic education of appropriate quality ( knowledge, abilities and skills) for all citizens that would ensure their labour in conditions of respect to human dignity, improvement of quality of their life, active participation in development and possibilities of continuation of learning.
    2. In Ukraine of the 90-s almost 100 per cent of children beginning from the age of 6 or 7 received formal basic education by duration of at least nine years as it was stipulated by the laws of the USSR. The state bodies supervision of compliance with the provision concerning compulsory training of children of the specified age was effective enough. All state bodies were made answerable for its execution.

      Parents, on the other hand, wanted to give their children an appropriate education too. Such coincidence of parents wishes and aims of the bodies of management of education explains the fact that cases of non-attendance of school in Ukraine of the 90-s were a rare exception and formal basic education was hereby a real "education for all ".

    3. The basic education, as the World Declaration of 1990 envisages, is to be directed at the development of every citizen’s respect for a common cultural, language and spiritual heritage; aspiration to protect the environment, achievement of social justice, tolerance towards representatives of other social, political or religious systems, respect and observance of commonly accepted humanistic values, activities for the benefit of peace and development of co-operation and solidarity of the peoples of the world.
    4. In the Soviet Union the second provision of the World Declaration on Education for All was not executed in full. In the country there was a complete centralisation of management and prohibition of alternative education. All schools and other educational institutions adhered to the communist ideology and ethics.

      The code of the communist ethics included not all main aspects of the European humanistic one. For example, education was not aimed at bringing up in respect to bearers of other ideological opinions.

    5. The World Declaration emphasises that alongside the granting of knowledge, abilities and skills to students the basic education is to develop their cultural and moral values necessary for life.
    6. The system of compulsory education in the USSR followed successfully this provision of the Declaration but passed to pupils only that part of culture and ethics, which was considered as expedient and corresponding to the communist ethics. The class approach based on international unity of workers and peasants of all countries of the world, which dominated at that period.

      At that time the program of a merger of all nations and nationalities into " the Soviet people " one was officially proclaimed in the USSR. In its framework in the system of education in Ukraine in the 70-80-s the Ukrainian language was actively ousting not only on the highest levels but in kindergartens and institutions of basic education as well. In the content of education the national aspects were also artificially limited.

    7. The 1990 World Declaration on Basic Education emphasises the importance of transformation the latter into a basis for continuation of learning and human development during individual’s life.

The system of education in Ukraine of the 90-s mainly satisfied this requirement ( the Diagram 1 convincingly testifies it). Levels of this system concerning the content of education and methods of teaching were incorporated with one another and formed the agreed integrity. Besides, activities of institutions of non-formal education and development of children and adults co-ordinated with formal education activities.

This in full measure referred to the sector of informal education. The radio and TV programs transmitted educational information for children, youth and adults, content, time and form of which were co-ordinated with the educational curricula of schools and other institutions of the formal education sector.

Articles ??-? of the World Declaration on Education for All formulate the very important provisions concerning the approaches of governments of all countries of the world to total and effective satisfaction of basic educational needs of youth and adults. The system of education in Ukraine in 1990, which was created in Soviet times, satisfied a significant part of these provisions.

Articles ?? and ??? of the World Declaration on Education formulate and motivate the necessity " of the extended approach " to education for all, particularly concerning ensuring of general and universal character of access to education and provision of its high quality.

In Ukraine of the 80-s such approach was implemented practically completely for the age group of 7-15 and the granting of educational services to junior and senior age groups continuously raised. For example, near 60 per cent of children of age group 1-6 attended state pre-school institutions. Annually practically every second adult employee took part in short-term lecturing activities and other forms of informal training.

High effectiveness of education of that period was ensured by the rigid control of the educational managerial bodies for the usage of scientifically proved state "standards" - standard educational plans, programs of school subjects, examination tickets, transferring and current tests in all subjects, which were worked out by the best Soviet scholars and teachers and were characterised by high scientific and methodological quality. The usage of all those educational documentation and materials was obligatory for all educational institutions in the USSR.

These measures together with significant methodological and information assistance to teachers enabled the majority of students to cope with school program quite successfully. The independent examination of knowledge and skills of students of the 14-years old age group from many countries by the International Commissions under aegis of UNESCO at the end of the 80-s testified high level of knowledge of the students from Ukraine and other regions of the Soviet Union in Mathematics and Science.

Article IV of the World Declaration recommends every country to turn education into an object of the special attention. For this purpose it is necessary to unite material and intellectual resources for rendering assistance to basic education institutions. That will ensure high quality of training for all persons who need basic education. The World Declaration proposes to elaborate and to use the state or national standards of the content of subjects and ways of testing the students achievements as one of possible measures of getting high quality in education.

As it was mentioned above, in the USSR and Ukraine for a long time state standards and the standard programs were the main tools for ensuring of uniformity and quality of education. They proved their efficiency both in the USSR and in other countries with the centralised management of state educational sector (France, Italy, Austria, etc.) and served as a grounds for inclusion of the specified recommendation into the World Declaration on Education for All.

It should be stressed that education in the USSR was an object of the special attention and concentration of material and intellectual resources of the country. The content and methods of education supervision by the USSR leadership was total but at the second half of the 80-s began to weaken and the Ukrainian leaders received a certain amount of autonomy and opportunity to carry out pedagogical experiments.

The level of concentration of material and intellectual resources of the USSR in educational sector received less unequivocal estimation. Schools got necessary educational materials, means for maintenance and repair of premises on a centralised basis. Although the teachers’ salaries were lower in comparison with average salaries in all sectors of industry they received it regularly. Information provision of students, teachers and all population in sphere of achievements of natural sciences and technologies was organised quite effectively in the USSR.

At the same time, the situation, when new technologies were not directed to schools and educational equipment was insufficient and outdated, affected negatively the basic vocational training of students of schools and other institutions of the system of compulsory education.

The inattention to material maintenance of schools became especially noticeable at the end of the 80-s, when a lot of institutions in Ukraine did not have computers and class-rooms for audio lessons. At that time the preconditions to present day backlog of Ukraine in the sphere of spreading of information technologies and mass usage of computers in schools and higher educational institutions were created.

Articles V and IX emphasise the necessity of constant broadening of means and enrolment of basic education.

In the USSR, as it was mentioned above, the system of education received the minimum possible amount of material and financial resources. At the same time the Soviet leadership tried to ensure acceptable quality of basic education and therefore since 1945 duration of compulsory education gradually increased and in the 80-s the majority of students received the 10-11 years general secondary education.

Articles VI, VII, V??? of the World Declaration on Education for All stress the necessity of developing of a supporting policy context for activities of educational institutions and expansion of their possibilities in ensuring a lot of qualitative services and providing of youth and adults with basic education. The special attention is to be paid to improvement of conditions of life and labour of teachers, raising of their social status. It means that every country is to improve the work of all levels of education, particularly the higher one. The establishments of higher education should get support for development of academic and professional training of teachers of basic education.

Article ? underlines the importance of strengthening international solidarity as the precondition of ensuring the assistance for development of education to all countries which have no sufficient internal material and personnel resources.

In the Soviet Union and Ukraine at the end of the 80-s there was quite favourable social and political situation for the development of the system of basic education. Teachers had high social status and privileges in getting free housing. Nevertheless, as it was mentioned, their average salary was low that affected negatively a prestige of the profession of a teacher in the youth eyes.

In the international sphere links between educational institutions of Ukraine and foreign countries were quite limited. The Government of the USSR as country - member of UNESCO took part in the programs of assistance to basic education of the developing countries. But at a level of secondary education contacts and exchanges of Ukraine with foreign countries had no appreciable influence on activity of its system of basic education. They were too insignificant and the system of Soviet education was almost completely closed.

 It was the state of things with performance of provisions of the World Declaration on Education for All at the moment of declaration by Ukraine of its independence (August 24, 1991). The new Ukrainian top political and educational officials shared the ideas of the World Declaration and tried to develop basic education for all in this direction.

 1.2. Factors of effect upon target dimensions of the Declaration in Ukraine
of the 90-s

At the beginning of the period of independence of Ukraine three factors affected the development of events in the sphere of education for all:

In the sphere of education the President, the Government (the Cabinet of Ministers) and top officials of the system of education tried to keep the achieved level of enrolment of 6-15 years old children by training and concentrated their efforts on change of qualitative aspects - development of new aims of education and reforming of the contents of the humanitarian subjects.

Scholars and politicians have suggested several concepts of the new national education. Hopes on positive changes and plans of reforms were generalised in the Laws of 1991 and Decrees of the President, and also in the State National Program "Education" (Ukraine 21-st century) [4].

The Law on Languages was the first of them. It liquidated the old injustice and proclaimed the Ukrainian language as the only one state language.

The Law on Languages is of democratic character and does not forbid minorities to develop their own languages. Many Sunday schools and a lot of other forms of language training were established on its basis. In the areas of compact residing of language minorities the amount of classes and schools where Hungarian, Romanian, Polish are used - quickly increased.

The Law on Education, which proclaimed creation of the national Ukrainian system of education and defined its purposes and principles, was adopted in summer of 1991. The text of this Law was specified in 1996 [2], on the eve of the adoption of the New Constitution of Ukraine by the Supreme Rada [1]. The ways and means of implementation of the provisions of this Law were formulated in the State National Program "Education", adopted by the Government.

This document contained aims and objectives concerning all aspects of development of national education, and first of all, education for all. The State National Program "Education" ("Ukraine 21 century") preserved the mentioned above positive features of the Soviet pre-school education, the system of the basic education and liquidated all negative characteristics of the totalitarian pedagogy.

Laws and Decrees of the President and resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers affected implementation of provisions of the World Declaration on Education in Ukraine in the 90-s in the following aspects:

  Increasing of activities directed upon protection of childhood and development of children.

From the moment of the proclamation of the independence the top officials of Ukraine considered the fulfilment of the provisions of the Declaration on Rights and Protection of a Child as one of the priorities of its internal policy. The texts of the Constitution and the laws in a sphere of education, social protection and public health services were worked out and adopted in the light of the universal international declarations and acts ([1-5]. The new Ukrainian laws and resolutions proclaimed maximum priority of rights and interests of a child, ensuring favourable conditions for his physical and cognitive development, reception of necessary knowledge, abilities and skills.

  Accessibility of basic education to all

The official policy of Ukraine was constantly aimed at ensuring of basic education for everyone who needs it. These efforts of state bodies were supported by the Ukrainian public, independent unions and institutions, and by international funds and associations. Though during the 90-s the gross national product (GNP) of Ukraine decreased in two and a half times, the elementary and basic school involved practically all age group of 7-15 year olds.

The formal basic education remains free-of-charge and accessible to all. Unfortunately the financial crisis has resulted in significant reduction of enrolment of small children by the state pre-school educational provisions. But during two last years there are signs of improvement of the situation with pre-school education, in particular, expansion of enrolment in several parts of Ukraine.

  Development of educational achievements

In a period of the 90-s the state bodies of Ukraine made great progress in a sphere of the development of the content and purposes of education. It carried out deilogisation of all educational levels, changed the purposes of the humanitarian base, contents of all humanitarian subjects (literature, history and so on), developed new state standards of the basic and secondary education, the advanced standards of higher education are in the process of elaboration. Knowledge, abilities and skills of the Ukrainian graduates of basic and upper secondary school meet better the modern requirements of the changed labour market.

  Reduction of a level of illiteracy among the adult population, in particular, of inequalities between women and men

As in 1990, the present-day Ukraine is characterised by a high level of literacy of the adult population which corresponds to the average parameters of the European countries. As earlier, in Ukraine the identical accessibility of all levels and types of education to all is guaranteed ensuring in such a way an absence of appreciable distinctions in levels of literacy between men and women.

  Expansion of basic education and development of important abilities and skills necessary for all to youth

During the 90-s Ukraine managed to keep quite high level of enrolment of youth by the 8-9 years basic education. The changes in its structure and contents are stipulated within the framework of the plan of reforming of secondary education for the period of 2001-2013.

Despite of financial and economic crisis and cuts of resources of the central and local budgets, an improvement of educational plans and expansion of a set of subjects in upper school in Ukraine continues.

  Expansion of opportunities of getting knowledge and skills necessary for increase of quality of life by individuals and families.

At a level of compulsory education for an age interval of 6-18 the state bodies of Ukraine could keep a high level of opportunities of getting education of appropriate quality for individuals and for families. It may be considered as a success because volumes of the state and local budgets for the period of 1991-1997 were cut in 3 or 4 times. Such great reduction affected negatively the system of education, which suffered losses at a level of pre-school education, basic vocational training, higher education and also non-formal and informal sectors.

Central and local bodies of education management even in such difficult situation try to introduce new means for increasing opportunities for education of high quality - computers, international networks of distribution of the information, etc.

2. Strategy of "Education for All " and plan of actions in Ukraine

Economic crisis in Ukraine, reduction of the GNP and cut of the educational budget forced the Ukrainian Government to review the strategy of development of the system of education adopted at the end of 1993. Today all efforts are concentrated on ensuring of activities of institutions of the system of formal basic education and increase of financial efficiency of vocational training and higher education.

According to the educational legislation, the fulfilment of these tasks, which based upon the Constitution of Ukraine [1] and the Law on Education [2], are set on state bodies, particularly on the Government (The Cabinet of Ministers), and its structure – the Ministry of Education ( which subordinates the majority of educational institutions). At a level of basic education for all the Ministry of Education subordinates almost 100 per cent of elementary, basic and upper schools.

The Constitution of Ukraine and the Law on Education guarantee to all citizens the right to free-of-charge education in all state educational institutions irrespective of a gender, race, ethic origin, social and property status, type and character of occupation, ideology, membership of a party, relation to religion, state of health, residences and other circumstances ([2], Article 3).

The quality of education is ensured by the state supervision over activities of all educational institutions, irrespective of forms of property. It is carried out by the central and local bodies of management of education and the State Inspection of educational institutions of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine.

The Law on Education defines the components of the "state bodies of management of education ":

Ministry of Education of Ukraine;

Ministries and departments which supervise educational institutions;

High Certifying Commission of Ukraine;

Ministry of Education of Independent Republic of Crimea;

Local executive authorities, bodies of local self-management and bodies of management of education.

The Law on Education in Article 11 defines the principle role of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine in educational sphere and invests it with the following authorities:

"The Ministry of Education of Ukraine is the central body of state executive authorities and carries out management in a sphere of education.

The Ministry of Education of Ukraine:

The Acts of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine are obligatory for ministries and departments, for educational institutions which are under subordination of these ministries and departments, for the Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, local bodies of state executive authorities and bodies of local self-management, bodies of management education which are subordinated to them, educational institutions irrespective of forms of property".

Traditional for the Soviet educational system centralisation can not be liquidated immediately, but only gradually. Creation of several hundreds of educational institutions of a private form of property (private sector) and transferring of financing of pre-school provisions and schools of all levels from the central to local budgets are the first elements of the process of decentralisation and democratisation. It means transferring the responsibility for ensuring of the activities of the institutions and schools from the Ministry of Education to local authorities and bodies of self-management of the citizens.

3. Decisions making and management

As mentioned above, Ukraine of the 90-s kept a high level of centralism in the management of education. One of the positive aspects of centralisation is working out the educational standards for ensuring quality of education. In Table 3 we present the legislative and administrative structure of ensuring of quality of education in Ukraine.

 Table 3. The basic levels and elements of legislative basis for assurance of quality of education in Ukraine (1999)

 Levels

Name of the element or its example

Source

Enrollment

The highest

The Constitution

The Supreme Rada (Parliament)

All territory of Ukraine, all educational institutions

High - ?

1. The Law on Education.

2. The Law on General Secondary Education, etc.

The Supreme Rada (Parliament)

All territory of Ukraine, all educational institutions

High - B

The Decree on the High Certifying Commission

The President

All territory of Ukraine, all educational institutions

High

Resolutions

The Cabinet of Ministers (Government)

All territory of Ukraine, all educational institutions

Middle

Orders

Minister of Education, other top administrators

All Ukraine, all or part of institutions

Low

Orders and instructions

Head of educational local authority

Part of Ukraine and part of institutions

Institutional

Decisions, orders, instructions

Head of secondary of Rector of High School, Board of an Institution

An institution or its subdivisions

 

At a level of higher education institutions are submitted to many (more than ten) ministries and committees. The institutions of pre-school education and basic education for all are completely concentrated in the system of the Ministry of Education. According to the legislation it carries out management and co-ordination of activities in the sphere of education for all. Today in Ukraine democratisation of management of education and monitoring of its activities make considerable progress. On the one hand, entering Council of Europe and analogous international organisations inevitably requires the official evaluation of the system of Ukrainian legislation by foreign experts by criteria of the developed democratic countries, on the other, the system of sociological research of all population gradually develops. The texts of the recently adopted laws of the direct effect concerning vocational training and general secondary education [3,5] testify to the successful implementation of the European educational practice.

The role of press and other means of mass media in development of educational policy in Ukraine remains insignificant. Information area considerably narrowed for the majority educational employees because they have no financial possibilities to subscribe professional newspapers and magazines. Their low circulation and high cost make it difficult to influence hundreds of thousands of teachers of Ukraine and express their ideas and proposals concerning the state and necessary changes in the system of education.

 4. Co-operation in the sphere of education for all

Nowadays in Ukraine the education of the 6-14 age group is carried out almost totally by the official bodies, which are subordinated to the Ministry of Education. Private schools enrol approximately 1 per cent of students of the age group of 15-17 year olds and a little bit more than 7 per cent of students of higher educational institutions. Thus, the education for all in Ukraine is carried out by the state bodies, which are to adhere to the defined standards of amount and content of educational services.

These services of official bodies within the framework of the certain state standards are free-of-charge. The financing and material maintenance of educational process in the system of formal basic education for all are charged in Ukraine with local budgets. The positive aspects of such significant decentralisation are accompanied by the negative ones as well: resources of schools in various areas and regions, which have various financial possibilities, are different.

The requirement of free education does not affect the private educational sector and those educational services of official bodies, which exceed the state standard of formal basic education for all. Creation of the sector of paid services is significant innovation of the 90-s. At first it was accompanied by temporary difficulties connected with indistinct regulation. Therefore legal aspects of paid educational services are under constant development. In the middle of the 90-s the paid services became an integral part of activities of many schools and high educational institutions of Ukraine.

Various types of schools, courses and events, organised and financed by organisations and unions of language minorities (Jewish, Polish and others), and religious communities of various confessions are another aspect of the present-day system of education of Ukraine. In Ukraine their activities are held in favourable legislative conditions, that is why all issues are solved at a local level. Only very important problems such as signing the agreements on educational and cultural co-operation and support of language minorities between Ukraine and another country are negotiated at the governmental level.

At the beginning of the 90-s the disappearance of notorious "iron curtain" was used by a number of international religious associations and sects for transferring their activities on territory of Ukraine, first of all - into educational institutions. The Ministry of Education and other state bodies carried out the analysis of their educational and missionary activities and liquidated all negative aspects of it.

As a member of UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe and other international organisations Ukraine fulfils the obligations taken upon and participates in the majority of educational and cultural projects of these organisations. The state bodies of Ukraine co-operate actively with many well-known international, state and independent funds, which support development of education, democracy, transition to an open society. In Ukraine the favourable conditions for humanitarian activity of these funds are created.

For example, a lot of educational projects is carried out by private fund of George Soros. Financing of new generation of the textbooks of humanitarian disciplines for schools and higher educational institutions is among them. High schools of Ukraine receive significant assistance from the European Union for development of the programs of training of economists, sociologists and other experts within the framework of the program TEMPUS – TASIS, etc.

In Ukraine much attention is paid to the international co-operation of national institutions and teachers with foreign colleagues. There are no obstacles for co-operation of non-governmental organisations or associations, if they adhere to the legislation and the purpose of their activity is the development of education and democracy, distribution of moral values and provisions of UN, UNESCO and other international organisations’ documents.

5. Investment into education for all since 1990.

In Ukraine during the 90-s transferring of financing from the central to local budgets became an important event in formal basic education for all. It did not affect the state norms of maintenance of schools, wage rates of teachers, administration and other employees of schools. Simultaneously local authorities may fix additional payments, premiums and other forms of encouragement of teachers depending on their possibilities.

At the beginning the 90-s during development of the program of reforms and improvement of education the laws and governmental acts on usage of about 10 per cent of GNP for education and on fixing of teachers’ salaries at a level of the average salary in industrial sectors of economy were adopted.

Unfortunately, the economic crisis and problems concerning reconstruction of the economy have enabled to implement only part of these plans. For example, the central budget financed working out and edition of a set of textbooks for the system of basic education for all. For the first time the elementary school got an opportunity to choose the best textbooks.

The crisis and reduction of budget revenues made the central and local educational administrative authorities to allocate funds only for salaries of teachers and to postpone building of new premises, replacement of equipment of schools and so on. But even in such situation salaries are paid with delay because of the lack of finances.


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