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Part II. ANALYTIC SECTION

 INTRODUCTION

From comparison of educational systems and statistical reports, concerning their activities in many countries, it follows that practically each of them uses their own set of indicators. The smaller part of parameters coincides in several countries and only an insignificant part presents in all of them. They correspond to the amount of institutions and enrolment of pupils and teachers.

Activization of co-operation of many countries with economic and educational international associations (UNESCO, OCDE and others) has put a problem of comparison of state and characteristics of education in countries-participants. Scholars have offered many versions of indicators and their complexes, but only part of them was used in practice for creation in these associations of the coordinated complexes of indicators of state and quality of education.

Elaboration of these coordinated international indicators of state and quality of education at first has not affected enough upon activities of statistical services of a number of countries. Only in recent years significant expansion of mobility of students and persons furnished with a diploma and needs of the detailed evaluations and recognition of educational qualifications (certificates of secondary and diplomas of higher education institutions) have forced the majority of the countries to improve their statistical educational services and to increase the list of those parameters, which are included into statistical bulletins.

Mentioned above concerns Ukraine as well, the achievements of which in applying of international standards of statistics are appreciable, but nevertheless still insufficient. It can be explained by a relative youth of the State system of Ukraine, and lack of resources for realization of sociological and other measurements.

Therefore the Ministry of Education of Ukraine and other state bodies as a rule collect mainly the data, concerning planning of financial and personnel provision, formation of the state order for higher education institutions for experts' training for schools and other institutions and so forth.

In the past collecting of the data on participation of each gender was not necessary because of absolutely equal access of girls and boys to education, and therefore gender characteristic in education was not measured. This explains the fact that now among the statistical data there are very few detailed ones concerning both genders separately.

Thus, the system of indicators in education in Ukraine is little coordinated with those 18 key indicators, which are recommended to use for this Report. Therefore later we will be able to present only the data, existing in Ukrainian statistical reports. The order of the description also meets the Ukrainian realities. At first we will analyze evolution and state of pre-school education, later - the same data for primary and basic schools.

 6. Fulfillment of goals and targets (1990-1999)

 6.1. Evolution, state and trends of changes of pre-school educational system in Ukraine

 6.1.1. General remarks

 In the Soviet Union pre-school education and training of children for the beginning of schooling were of great importance. The opportunity of strengthening of collectivist compound of education, realization of desirable primary ideological and political influence on children was the political foundation for expansion of the kindergartens' network. Not less important should become the economic gain from involvement of young mothers into the labor market.

In Ukraine there was plenty of pre-school education institutions, which were the properties of factories and other industrial objects. A network of pedagogical schools, technical schools and institutes provided all these institutions with well-prepared experts. In the 80s more than 90 per cent of pre-schools' staff had the appropriate education, and in the 90s - more than 97 per cent.

The expansion of the pre-schools' network in Ukraine with its high level of qualification of the female population proceeded till the last years of existence of the Soviet Union. That is why maximal enrolment of children by different forms of public pre-schools are related to the late 80s.

Later on the negative aspects of evolution of the pre-school education institutions' network prevailed upon the positive ones.

 Table 4. Evolution of the public pre-school institutions' network in Ukraine ([7] and others.)

  

1985

1990

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1.Enrolments of permanent institutions (thousands)

- urban

- rural

22,9

 

11,7

11,2

24,5

 

11,9

12,6

23,2

 

11,4

11,8

21,4

 

10,5

10,9

20,2

 

9,7

10,6

18,4

 

8,7

9,7

17,6

 

8,2

9,4

2.The number of places in permanent institutions (thousands)

- urban

- rural

2 515

 

1 838

677

2 277

 

1 662

615

 

2 014

 

1 463

551

1 856

 

1 350

506

1 770

 

1 255

515

1 638

 

1 152

476

3.Enrolments of pre-schools (thousands)

- urban

- rural

2 600

 

2 048

552

2 428

 

1 877

551

1 800

 

1 420

382

1 536

 

1 222

314

1 342

 

1 085

257

1 172

 

953

219

1 103

896

207

4.Scope of children, aged 1-6 years old (%)

-urban

- rural

60

 

69

40

57

 

64

43

 

44

 

53

28

41

 

51

23

38,5

 

42

20

38

 

40

20

5. Enrolments of tutors (thousands)

239

262

241

203

190

151

142,6

6."Filling" of pre-schools (%)

- urban

- rural

103

111

81

107

113

90

 

76

84

57

72

80

51

66

76

43

67

77

43

7 Amount of refusals to parents to accept their child into a pre-school institution (thousands)

192,6

181,8

 

22,3

15

 In the late of the 90s there has been a reduction in the kindergarten network due to the following: lack of funds in local budgets to maintain kindergartens; the decline in birth rate; and extended periods of unemployment among parents. The temporary closure of pre-school institutions has become regular phenomenon. Financial situation in the sphere of pre-school education might be improved by transforming pre-school institutions into municipal property; this process has intensified during 1997-1999. However, an increase both in the number of kindergarten-primary school educational institutions for mentally and physically disabled children and those operating in the Ukrainian language is observed.

The up-to-date educational legislation of Ukraine gives much attention to the pre-school education. Adoption of Laws On Pre-School Education, On protection of Childhood, and On Approval of the State Standard of Pre-School Education could be considered as timely police interventions both to protect existing institutions and to set appropriate standards for newly emerging non-state initiatives.

Two articles of the Law on Education state:

" Article 33. Pre-school education

Pre-school education is carried out in a family, pre-school education institutions in co-operation with family and pursue the purpose of maintenance of physical and mental health of children, their all-round development, acquiring of vital experience, and also skills and habits necessary for the further education.

Article 34. Pre-school education institutions

1. Pre-school education institutions are: day nurseries, kindergartens, day nursery-kindergartens, institutions of different types - family, compensating (for mentally and physically disabled children) and combinations of types with short-term, day time, round-the-clock stay of children, and also boarding kindergartens, children's homes and others.

2. Access of children to pre-schools is carried out at the request of their parents or persons, who replace them. "

Educational system officials and local authorities (we will remind, that the financing of pre-schools is carried out from the local budgets) in common try to provide parents with the greatest choice of institutions, according to the personality and mental and physical health of their child. For this purpose even inder the present crisis period there continue to open pre-school education institutions, which differ by their purpose, patterns of ownership, type (art - aesthetic, rehabilitation, physical training, sanitary, humanitarian specialization and so on.).

As earlier, there exist specialized institutions for physically and mentally disabled children and for children with some diseases. Mainly they are institutions of a sanatorium type. For orphans and children, which are deprived of parental care, there are kindergartens and houses of a family type, enrolments of which at the end of 1994 were more than 3 400 children.

Establishment of high-grade "school-kindergarten" complexes which is of great importance especially for rural areas it is possible to consider as the positive phenomenon. In 1994 the number of such complexes was 747 with enrolments of about 15 000 children.

The changes in the sphere of legislation and democratization of management in education have enabled language minorities to carry out their aspiration to bring up children in more favorable language conditions. At the beginning of 1995 the distribution of kindergartens accordingly to the operating language was as follows.

 Table 5. Distribution of pre-school institutions accordingly to the language of operating

 Language

1994

1995

1996

1997

Language

1994

Ukrainian

Institutions

Enrolment

(In % of total)

 

18 000

1 150 000

64%

 

 

 

66%

 

 

 

69%

 

 

 

72%

Crimean-Tatar

 

Institutions

Enrolment

 

 

19

436

Russian

Institutions

Enrolment

(As % of total)

 

7 000

645 000

36%

 

 

 

33%

 

 

 

31%

 

 

 

28%

Moldavian

Institutions

Enrolment

 

 

39

2 400

Hungarian

Institutions

Enrolment

 

90

3 700

     

German

Institutions

Enrolment

 

1

27

Romanian

Institutions

Enrolment

 

38

1 500

         

Note: Accordingly to the data of [7,15] and others enrolments in pre-schools with Hungarian, Romanian and other languages changed a little during 1995-97.

 Economic crisis and cut of financial-material resources of the state budget and of those enterprises, which possessed almost 58 per cent of total of pre-school education institutions, has caused appreciable decrease of the pre-schools network and reduction of the level of 1-6 year age group scope by pre-schools approximately up to 35 per cent.

 6.2.2. Quantitative parameters

 Different age groups and their scope by pre-school programs

The majority of data, necessary for the analysis of evolution of the pre-school educational system in Ukraine during 1990-1999, are presented in Tables S1-S3.

Unfortunately, they prove some negative trends in development of the pre-school educational system in Ukraine. A number of social and economic reasons explain stable reduction of both network and enrolments of different pre-schools for children of 1-6 year age group.

In Ukraine the complete information about all this large group of children is traditionally accumulated, though accentual pre-school programs of study are completed only by the elder part of this age group - from three till six years old. The Ukrainian legislation financially stimulates the mothers' care of children aged up to three years old, that is why a great part of children, aged from one till three years old does not attend any type of public or private specialized institutions of pre-school education.

If to use the data of the Ministry of Education for the network of pre-schools, subordinated to it, it will appear, that the ratio of enrolments of 1-3 and 3-6 years age group is very close to the ratio 1:9. It means, that in all pre-school institutions, given in the Tables concerning enrolment, 10 per cent of children are aged from one up to three years old, and 90 per cent - elder pre-school group, aged three - six years old. It enables with to transform without difficulties the Tables for 1-6 years age group into two separate groups of Tables for younger (1-3 years old) and elder children (3-6 years old). In Ukraine there are no reliable data concerning the scope by pre-school education of children for each separate year: 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and so on. It does not give the opportunity to present scope levels by the preparatory programs, for example, of five-year-olds and six-year-olds before they in the age of 6 or 7 enter the first grade of elementary school.

Personal interest of parents to get pre-school education for their children is rather strong, and the opportunities of the available network, despite of its significant reduction in comparison with 1990, prevail above demand for it.

The last line of Table 4, though also incomplete, undoubtedly proves practical lack of refusals to parents, when they address to the choosed pre-school institution. It should be mentioned, that the annual amount of newborns in Ukraine during years of deepening of social and economic crisis has dropped almost twice (from 700-800 thousands in the 80s up to 400-500 thousands in the 90s).

To sum up, we will emphasis that 35 per cent of scope by pre-school education of 1-6 years old age group gives a chance practically to all entrants into the first grade to take part in the programs of pre-school education. They usually do it in the age from 5 till 7.

The preservation in Ukraine of traditions of equal access of boys and girls to all kinds of the preparatory or developing programs completely removes a gender problem. As well as in the system of compulsory education, girls and boys are equally presented in pre-schools.

 Reasons for reduction of the pre-school education institutions network and its enrolments

During transition of the Ukrainian economy from the centralized and the planned to regulated-market one significant changes took places in management and financing of the pre-school education institutions network.

Despite some positive indicators, overall, the economic situation in Ukraine in the late 90s continued to be complex. The state budget revenue was being collected with great difficulties while the budgets of most enterprises and institutions were not balanced. Moreover, there was no decrease in dept payments among enterprises while arrears in payment of salaries, pensions and other social allowances were not eliminated. Yet, to a certain degree financial stabilization was achieved, inflation decreased to 1 per cent, and the negative growth rates of the CNP and industrial production were stabilized.

The crisis situation in economy has become a real disaster for a significant part of the largest state factories and enterprises - termination of the stable state financing and also impossibility to sell out-of-date and low-quality domestic products (agricultural and other machines, machine tools and so on) on the world market, have stopped work of many of them.

It caused termination of financing of approximately half of pre-school institutions, which were properties of these factories and were intended for their workers' children. For rescue these institutions were transformed into municipal property. Now practically all the public pre-school education institutions are in municipal property and are financed from the local budgets. The protection or closure of such institutions, transforming them from a mode of permanent work into seasonal or non-permanent one is decided by local authorities, taking into account the resources and needs for the preparatory programs for children.

Hence, reduction of the pre-school institutions network and changes in their submission and financing are an objective process, which cannot be estimated only negatively. We can't consider that it proportionally reduces opportunities of providing the preparatory programs to the future entrants into the first grade.

This follows from that fact that there was a significant reduction of potential enrolments of such institutions. It has caused the most part (over one million) of reduction of pre-school institutions' enrolment in 1990 - 1998 (from 2.428 thousand up to 1.100 thousand children - 2.2 times as less). Let's remind, that in 1997 in Ukraine 442 600 children were born, that is 1,7 times as less as it was at the beginning of the 80s. Demographic data prove, that 7/12 of all reductions of the pre-schools' enrolments in Ukraine are connected with the decline in birth rate.

One more reason of the pre-school education institutions' enrolment reduction might be considered as positive - the new legislation gives to a young mother the right to remain with her child till he is three years old. Extended periods of unemployment among young parents also caused the fact that they are out of work and are compelled to be at home with children.

Taking into account all negative and positive phenomena in the up-to-date state of the system of pre-school education in Ukraine it is necessary to mention, that still the destructive processes prevail. Many kindergartens, which were earlier the properties of collective and state agrarian facilities (collective and state farms), of large factories and so on, are closed. The majority of institutions with permanent educational and sanitary work were transformed into seasonal ones.

The reduction of financing of the overwhelming majority of pre-school education institutions has resulted in prevailing in them only of two items of expenses - on payment of the personnel and feed of children. Very often there are no funds to update furniture, toys and other equipment.

And even as to the mentioned two items of expenses there are a lot of problems: many cases of a wages delay during several months, many problems with the providing of sanitary-hygienic norms and with the requirements to the meals of children and so forth. It is especially inadmissible taking into account deterioration of the ecological conditions of the most Ukrainian territory. Complex of social and ecological negative influences explains (see data of recent researches of UNESCO experts about state of health of Ukrainian people [8]) the tendency of increasing cases of various diseases among small children, deterioration of average parameters of health.

The correction of the situation is prevented by economic crisis. For example, because of lack of means in summer time the majority of kids can't rest in more favorable conditions. Charities of developed countries' citizens, which help to make Ukrainian children, injured of accident in Chernobyl regions, healthier, treatment of some groups of Ukrainian children on Cuba - measures, worthy praises, but they can not replace an effective national program of child protection.

Relative share of parents' participation in payment for education of their children in pre-school institutions gradually grows. Maximal payment is in private institutions, but in public and municipal ones it is also gradually growing. For example, in 1997 parents paid 15-20 per cent of cost - about 79,5 UAH for one child a year.

The legal uncertainty of distribution of the responsibility between participants - parents and owners of pre-school education institutions - is kept. According to the decrees of the Government, the size of parents' payment for education in pre-school institutions depends on the average income of family but not on the quality of the given services, developing and language programs and so forth. Due to the State programs of social protection of the population in many cases parents from low-income families, single mothers and others are released from payment.

Among the latest important events in Ukraine, concerning pre-school education, it is necessary to mention the work upon the Law of the direct effect "On Pre-School Education ", the draft of which is close to consideration by the Supreme Rada. The creation under the leadership of the Ministry of Education of the pre-school education concept with detailed state standards of the program of development and preparation of future entrants into the first grade for regular schooling in elementary schools undoubtedly will be of great importance.

Contents of pre-school education programs

West European countries are well-known in development of systems of public care and pre-school education, and also of training children for successful schooling. The practice of these countries has proved public necessity of children mass scope under school age by training, adapted to their age, its large positive influence on their successful education at school and so on.

? The experience of European countries and developed countries of other regions of the world was widely used in the Soviet Union during establishment and expansion of the pre-school education institutions network as well. In the 80s there were (as in other democratic countries) three positive trends in the gradual solving of the following problems: reduction of the size of groups up to 20 children and less; keeping these groups' structure stability as long as possible;

? Improvement of tutors' professional training, increasing of its duration and transferring from secondary pedagogical institutions into higher ones (institutes and even universities).

Instructions and methods of education were being improved regularly. The positive experience of separate institutions was spread among majority ones. State bodies, responsible for the network of pre-school institutions issued much literature, professional magazines and employees of pre-school institutions could easily get it. Besides, they had an possibiliity regularly - with discontinuing work or without it - to improve their skills and to get new knowledge in their professional qualification in the network of specialized official bodies.

Following these complex and well-balanced measures there was a rather high qualitative level of pre-school education in Ukraine, which by most parameters was not worse than that in the countries of Western Europe. Programs of education and development of children were constantly being improved, and the personnel of pre-schools improved their formal qualification and professional skills. For this purpose a system of courses and lectures was created. It was subsidized from the state budget. The best experience of the developed countries and also the achievements of the national pre-schools was used in the pre-school education network in Ukraine.


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