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Since 1997 in some higher pedagogical institutions it is possible to get the third speciality in optional subjects - languages of national minorities, Economics, Business, Ecology, Valeology, Tourism and others. The complete list of both basic and additional specialities has exceeded 50, and their complexes - 130.

Standard curriculum of higher pedagogical institutions in Ukraine includes four groups of subjects:

Periodical assessment and certification of teachers and also using of the system of terrifying, qualifying categories and pedagogical ranks stimulate teachers to raise their professional level.

6.5.2. Qualification of teachers

The system of taking teachers on the staff, due to the state control and state belonging of almost all educational institutions of the system of formal basic education for all provides rather high teacher enrolments' level of pedagogical qualification, determined by the Laws. In case of infringement of this rule the management of the educational institution might be incurred a serious penalty.

Such policy results a very high qualifying level of pre-schools' and secondary schools' staff in Ukraine. For example, in the system of pre-school education almost 98 per cent of the staff has got an appropriate professional training [13]. Similar situation is in the network of all levels of educational institutions. Practically 100 per cent of teachers have special secondary or higher education.

There is no detailed data on the rate of teachers of the system of compulsory education with scientific degrees. As to the system of higher education, their rate is 55 per cent of all lecturers of the educational institutions of the third and fourth accreditation levels ([11, 14]).

In Table S9 there are data on the teachers' skill level (types of the received diplomas and character of education) in elementary and secondary schools (indicator 9 UNESCO). They prove that fact, that almost all teachers of the basic subjects (Mathematics, Science, languages and others) in basic or upper secondary schools have the diploma of a higher educational institution. The enrolment of teachers with no special secondary or higher education is less than one percent of all teachers of 5-11 grades.

Teachers of elementary schools also have very high qualifications. According to the data of Table D9, the enrolments of teachers with no special secondary or higher education at such schools is 0.3 per cent - 0.5 per cent of total.

Qualification of teachers of music, art, physical education, technical and vocational education and drawing is lower - 1.5 per cent of them have only secondary and no special education.

Tutors, which do not teach at schools any subjects, have the similar skill level - 0.7 per cent of them have no special secondary or higher education. It should be mentioned, that 65-70 per cent of teachers of these two groups has higher education not less than 4-5 years.

From the formal point of view, indicator 10 UNESCO, which specifies rate of teachers with the certificate, giving the right of teaching, is irrelevant in Ukraine.

The reason is in the "double" character of Ukrainian diplomas of higher and special secondary education. They have academic compound and entitle to graduates to continue education (for example, as a post-graduate student). Besides they entitle to work at school (professional compound).

Hence, educational system in Ukraine differs from those of many countries, where higher educational institutions award only academic diploma, and professional recognition and certificate for the right of teaching is given to a young teacher later by competent bodies after the period of training and passing of professional examinations.

It is important to remind, that in Ukraine there exist well-developed system of periodic assessment and certification of all teachers. Good work and positive certification results raise both status of teachers and their wages. Hence, we can say, that in Ukraine there exist teachers' "certification" as a system of stimulation of their development and professional improvement.

Indicator 11 UNESCO shows the average student-teacher ratio - the average number of students per one teacher. This parameter for elementary school in 1990 and 1996 is given in Table S10. For the period since 1990 till 1996 the amount of pupils of elementary school per one teacher dropped from 22.6 up to 21. It is easy to see that this reduction is caused first of all by the large - almost by 400 000 pupils - reduction of the number of pupils in elementary schools of Ukraine.

From the analysis of regional differences it follows, that maximal for Ukraine student-teacher ratio (29) was in 1996 in Kiev. It was rather high in Sevastopol' (27) and in oblasts with the large prevalence of the urban upon rural population - Dnipropetrovs'k, Donets'k, Lugans'k, Kharkiv and in Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

The small student-teacher ratio was observed in agrarian oblasts - Vinnytsia, Volyn', Khmel'nyts'kyi and other oblasts of the West of Ukraine. The reason is a large number of rural small-complete schools in these oblasts.

The new Law on General Secondary Education envisages the ratio of student and teachers’ enrolment equal to 19-20.

6.5.3. Repeaters and teaching efficiency

The number of repeaters in Ukraine is very low, first of all because the most teachers have diplomas of higher educational institutions and a high level of professional competence.

Evolution of the absolute amount of repeaters is shown in Table S11. During the period of 1990-1999 this parameter for the majority of oblasts and types of educational institutions has dropped. A certain exception is basic school, where the amount of repeaters was in 1998 more, than in 1990 by three and a half of thousand pupils.

The absolute amount of repeaters in the Ukrainian schools is insignificant. According to the data of Table S10 since 1998 in elementary schools there have been less than one percent (0,75 per cent) of repeaters. On the average one from 133 pupils in elementary school is a repeater.

At the basic school the similar parameter is (Tables S6 and S11) 0.81 per cent - one student of 123 is a repeater. For the upper secondary school it is equal only to 0. 115 per cent. Hence, there is one repeater from 868 students of the upper secondary school. During 1990-98 the absolute and relative number of repeaters in upper secondary schools dropped twice.

In Ukraine statistical services do not collect the data concerning indicator 13 UNESCO, as practically all the pupils of elementary school graduate from it. The rate of drops out do not exceed 0.2 per cent. Besides some part of these losses is caused by the reasons, which are not connected with schooling.

The same can be said about indicator 14 - an average duration of schooling in elementary school. As the repeaters' rate is less than 1 per cent, the cases of school year recurrence practically do not influence an average time of schooling of pupils in the elementary school. Approximately a quarter of all enrolments study four years, other children - three years.

In Ukraine indicator 15 is considered also as insignificant, because more than 98 per cent of initial enrolments of the basic school more or less successfully complete the course of the basic school.

6.5.4. Literacy level of the population

The new data on indicator 16 UNESCO (literacy level in 15-24 years old age group), unfortunately, are not available.

In Ukraine, as well as in the majority of other countries, literacy data are obtained only during the general census of the population.

In Ukraine the last census of the population was carried out in 1989. According to its data, the literacy level of the population in the age over 15 exceeds 99 per cent. At the same time the census showed that there was no differences in literacy levels between women and men (Tab.15)

 Table 15. Literacy level of the population of Ukraine, aged over 15 (the census of 1989)

  

Total, persons

Per 1000 persons

 

Both genders

Male

Female

Both genders

Male

Fe-male

Total population

Among them with education

Higher

Incomplete higher

Secondary special

General secondary

Incomplete secondary

Primary

40350565

 

4194373

608219

7246480

12550569

7423511

5570328

18096940

 

2038019

293512

2984222

6599807

3567994

2065808

22253625

 

2156354

314707

4262258

5950762

3955517

3504520

932

 

104

15

180

311

184

138

970

 

113

16

165

365

197

114

901

 

97

14

192

268

173

157

Engaged population

Among them with education

Higher

Incomplete higher

Secondary special

General secondary

Incomplete secondary

Primary

25916031

 

3608682

302864

6118182

10367079

3652587

1632899

13260489

 

1815445

158594

2595118

5709119

1983068

891445

12655542

 

1793237

144270

3523064

4657960

1669519

741454

991

 

139

12

236

400

141

63

992

 

137

12

196

431

149

67

990

 

142

11

278

368

132

59

Engaged urban population:

Among them with education

Higher

Incomplete higher

Secondary special

General secondary

Incomplete secondary

Primary

18153632

 

3206581

257032

4909417

6965641

1997977

714680

9062376

 

1624333

135707

2085563

3724534

1083823

367736

9091256

 

1582248

121325

2823854

3241107

914154

346944

994

 

177

14

270

384

110

39

996

 

179

15

230

411

120

41

993

 

174

13

311

356

101

38

Engaged rural population

Among them with education

Higher

Incomplete higher

Secondary special

General secondary

Incomplete secondary

Primary

7762399

 

402101

45832

1208765

3401438

1654610

918219

4198113

 

191112

22887

509555

1984585

899245

523709

210989

 

210989

22945

699210

1416853

755365

394510

983

 

52

6

156

438

213

118

984

 

46

5

121

473

214

125

982

 

59

6

196

398

212

111

 It is a logic result of scope by schooling of all children, hence, by realization of equal free access to the educational system both males and females. It should be mentioned, that the laws of Ukraine accent compulsory providing of formal basic and general secondary education to all children in Ukraine.

Because of lack of new reliable data we remind parameters of 1989. The maximal literacy parameters of 15-24 years old age group were in Kiev and also in Kyiv and Kharkiv oblasts - about 99,9 per cent. The minimal one - 99.7 per cent - in Autonomous Republic of Crimea (in that time - Crimean oblast), Vinnytsia and Zytomyr oblasts. In all other oblasts the literacy parameter was 99,8 per cent. Hence, literacy parameter for the territory of all Ukraine has appeared to be very high - 99,8 per cent for 15-24 age group.

The data of Table 15 show absolute levels of the received education by the population of Ukraine in the age over 15 in 1989.

To some extent these data could be some substitute of those concerning indicator 17 UNESCO (literacy level of adults).

Changes concerning literacy level of the population, which have taken, place in Ukraine since 1989 are insignificant. The nearest census for sure will give a parameter, which in 15-24 age group will exceed 99 per cent.

From the given data it follows, that in Ukraine there is no any marked differences in literacy levels of the population both male and female. Hence, indicator 18 UNESCO (index of gender parity) is not urgent for Ukraine.

During the period of 1990-1999 male and female access both to formal basic and to higher education have been equal. Provisions of the Constitution and educational Laws concerning inadmissibility of segregation in education by any parameters (gender, age, nationality and others) practically are fully carried out in Ukraine.

7. Efficiency of strategy, plans and programs of "Education for all "

?) On a level of a co-ordination of plans and programs of development of education with available conditions.

Political and economic changes in Ukraine of the 90-s were complex and extremely difficult. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of Ukraine, Russian Federation and other independent ex-Soviet states were accompanied by change of a social system, denationalisation of a part of the property, decentralisation of management, introduction of elements of market regulation instead of total planning and so on.

In spiritual sphere the process of transformation was as deep as in political (crash of old ideology) and industrial ones (total conversion and re-structuring of industry and agrarian sector). The change of mentality of the society and granting new and important knowledge and skills for effective activities in the democratic Ukraine depended on reforming of all three sectors of the system of education - formal, non-formal and informal.

The top officials of Ukraine in the 90-s put political and economic problems in the first place. The education was considered as an important but subordinated to policy and economy sphere of activity of the President and the Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine.

Such approach had certain negative consequences upon education. In strategic planning of changes in the system of education the intentions of overcoming of a number of the Soviet period lacks (domination of Russian, excessive ideologization of education and training) prevailed. These accents explained why among the first legislative changes in the educational sphere were the "Law on Languages" and the "Law on Education" (in 1991). The program of the reforms – the State National Program "Education" (Ukraine, 21-st century) - was worked out later, only at the second stage in 1992-1993 [4].

The program contains a plan of future changes of the system of education at all its levels and ways of improvement of management, financing and social protection of the participants of educational process. Instructions concerning the responsibility of state bodies for fulfilment of the provisions of the State National Program are placed in the Annexes.

The authors of the program kept reasonable balance between interests of students and teachers, the state and the society. Convention on Human Rights and Protection of a Child, its humanistic principles and moral values are among initial postulates of the program.

Logic of the formulations, perspective and progressive approach to the development of plans made the State National Program "Education" an important means of consolidation of pedagogues and politicians of Ukraine.

??) Efficiency of fulfilment of the provisions of the program of development of education

The State National Program "Education" could be implemented under conditions of an increase of GNP and amount of financing of the system of education from the state budget. Unfortunately, the development of events in economic sphere became unfavourable. Hyperinflation together with disintegration of the sales market in Ukraine resulted in the large cut of the state budget, particularly, expenses for education.

The low size of finance of the Ministry of Education and local authorities resulted in a decrease of the majority of plans of the reform but maintenance of educational process and realisation of those obligatory planned measures (working out and edition of a set of textbooks for the system of education of all), which continued policy of transformation of the inherited system of education into a national one. This task was successfully implemented under difficult financial and economic situation.

???) Main results of the reforms.

Within the period under review the network of institutions and the staff was kept, children and youth were granted an opportunity to get an appropriate education on their mother tongue. The system of education continues to carry out its main tasks under the situation when financing was cut double.

The second significant achievement is the working out of new textbooks at the Ukrainian language for the system of obligatory education. All these textbooks are published at the expense of the state budget and are free of charge for the students. Probably, in future only part of the students from families with low income would get free textbooks and the rest would pay a part of its cost.

In the difficult years of finance cuts development of new laws ("On Secondary Education", "On Vocational Training" and others) and the new standards of all educational levels continued. Within 1996-1998 the new state standards for pre-school education, elementary and basic education, general secondary education were elaborated with participation of hundreds of scholars and teachers of schools and higher educational institutions. Requirements concerning basic knowledge and skills for all main school subjects were formulated. Elaboration of the new state standards for higher education proceeds.

In future the fulfilment of the Law on General Secondary Education and increase of duration of studying at the elementary and the upper secondary school, development of curricula for these levels of training would ensure a progress in the educational sphere. The system of formal basic education for all in Ukraine will receive new impulse and will be able to carry out requirements of preparation of youth for life in the 21-st century.

8. The main problems of assessment

In Ukraine the period of 1990-1999 was not favourable for the balanced and stable development of education (improvement of material maintenance of educational process, creation of good conditions for students and teachers, increase of use of IT, facilitation of access to information).

Reduction of financial and other resources together with consequences of political and economic changes became the main obstacles for the expected development of education for all in Ukraine in the 90-s.

The forecast for development of education for the nearest two - three years is negative and is connected with political and economic realities.

The mentioned economic losses and problems affected negatively the development of the state statistics as well as the possibilities of the authors of this National Report to get the necessary data, tables and diagrams. The economic crisis became an obstacle for expansion of a number of indicators and other characteristics. Thus, deficiency of the required statistical data and impossibility to present them in the amount and the form, recommended to us, was the main problem during working out of the National Report.

9. Public comprehension, political will and national possibilities

There is no doubt that social and political consensus concerning necessity of concentration of common efforts for development of educational sphere, improvement of preparation of new generations for life and activities in the 21-st century exists in Ukraine.

All political forces and influential organisations support the increase of attention on development of education, financing, material and information maintenance of the system of education. Activities of the President, the Supreme Rada (Parliament), the Government and other top authorities are directed on improvement of the system of education, maintenance of its legal, financial and information base. Special efforts are made for liquidation of debts on salaries of teachers of schools and higher educational institutions. Local educational authorities work in the direction of granting financial assistance to children from low-income and large families and orphans.

In this difficult situation a position of hundred of thousands teachers of Ukrainian schools, professors of universities and other high educational institutions is very important. They realise the real state of things and carry out their duties before society honestly.

The situation when the majority of teachers are to spend their time to search additional earnings or other forms of maintenance of their existence affected negatively the quality of teaching. They have less time for individual development, studying of new sources of educational information, performance of additional measures for increase of achievements of students - additional tests, lessons "of interest" and so on.

Low level of organisation of teachers into unions of different types and weak participation in social events for support of education is another problem. It is inherited from the Soviet past, when laws allowed creation of only professional unions and their financing and activities were supervised by the state bodies. There were no independent unions or associations of the teachers of secondary and high schools. Now in Ukraine there is a number of such unions but their influence and participation in the educational process (in development of the educational policy, in working out of the standards of education for basic subjects and so on) is still insufficient. They are smaller than the same ones in the democratic countries of Europe and America.

The similar situation arose with decentralisation of management of education and involvement of financial and other assistance of business sector and private sponsors. Though since 1991 a significant progress was reached, and private sector in education developed greatly, but in general non-state sources are poorly used in Ukraine for development of education. The main reasons of such situation are the crisis and unfavourable legislation (for example, absence of a law on charities).

10. General assessment of success

After proclamation of independence of Ukraine and declaration of its intention to transform into a democratic country with the regulated market economy, the strategic plans of changes in education were submitted to this nation-wide purpose.

It became a basis for definition of strategic directions of reorganisation of education, in particular, education for all. The estimation of success and failures during reforming of education cannot be carried out without comparison with formulations of these priority directions in the beginning the 90-s [4].

The comparison of these formulations with the provisions of the World Declaration on Education for All adopted in 1990 in Jomtien, testifies to the intention of Ukraine to improve its system of education taking into consideration the provisions of the Declaration and those specific conditions, in which the country was at the moment of declaration of its independence.

In Ukraine the 90-s became the years of continuous changes in the system of education. Although significant positive changes were carried out in this period, unfortunately not all provisions of the strategic plans of the development of education in Ukraine were implemented. Incomplete fulfilment of the plans of reforms was caused by the external factors – the negative effect of the economic crisis and other phenomena of the transitive period.

Positive and negative results of development of the system of education for all (continuous education) in the 90-s in Ukraine we show in Table 16.

 Table 4. Evolution of the system of education for all for years of independence of Ukraine (1991-1999)

 Positive changes

Regress or absence of positive changes

In the system of compulsory education

1. Considerable "decolonisation" of the system of secondary education and its reforming in the direction of satisfaction of needs of independent Ukraine on the basis of new Constitution and educational legislation

1. Reduction of finance and material resources of the state in conditions of economic crisis and social changes of transition period

2. Democratisation and decentralisation of management and financing

2. Lack of attention to development and implementation of new social ideology. Partial transition to the new paradigm of education

3. Real deidelogisation of education

3. Fragmentary character of reforming of the system of education

4. Emergence of the national elements in training and education

4. Keeping of previous duration of education and school structure. Insufficient revision of curricula content

5. Emergence of private and alternative schools, lyceums and gymnasiums

5. Shortcomings of educational and tax legislation concerning attraction of all possible extrabudgetary funds into the system of education.

6. Updating a part of the textbooks, growth of application at school of Ukrainian language 6. Preservation in almost complete safety of an old set of subjects at school, inattention to civil and new political education.

7. Legislative support of schools for representatives of national minority

7. Deterioration of quality of the textbooks and reduction of their availability for the pupils. An interdiction on application of the textbooks not licensed by Ministry of Education of Ukraine.

  8. Insufficient attention to expansion of teaching of English language.
  9. Excessive attention to a statement of the «new history», «Ukraine science» etc.
   

On lowest and highest levels of system of formal education

   

1. Reforming of control and financing of a system of preschool preparation

1. Reduction of number of children in preschool institutions. It exceeds a diminution of an amount newborn.

2. Occurrence of some number private preschools and of postsecondary institutions

2. Reduction of the preschool institutions network. The parts of institutions, financed by the enterprises, is closed.

3. Liberalisation of formal training of the adults, increase of an opportunity of reception of new higher education in paid variant.

3. Reduction of availability of the information for almost all experts, deterioration of conditions and opportunities for self-training.

 

4. Significant reduction of budget financing for retraining of the staff.

   

In sector of non-formal education for all

1. Occurrence of some of useful institutions promoting development of democracy and formation of market economy.

1. Destruction of system of informal education and almost complete disappearance of public sector financed from the state budget.

2. Creation of the new private extra-school educational institutions

2. Occurrence of institutions of doubtful public utility (sectarian, antiscientific etc.).

 

3. Strong reduction of the information, useful to the population, in this sector.

In sector of informal education for all

1. Occurrence of separate elements of system of freedom of a word and seal.

1. Decrease of availability for the majority of the population of the printed information.

2. Cancellation of an interdiction on use of foreign sources of the information.

2. Almost complete inaccessibility to the population of the information on achievement in the field of natural sciences.

3. Decrease of ideological pressure.

3. Reduction of ukraine-language press.

 

4. Absence of reasonable system state policy in the field of development of informal education of the population.

 Thus, the system of education in Ukraine is at the stage of the transformations. They receive necessary state and public support, but the economic crisis, significant decrease of the GNP and cuts of educational budget affect negatively the development of education for all.


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