The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Uzbekistan
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



Part II Analytic Section

One of the main mechanisms to evaluate the way education system is functioning in the Republic is to ensure state statistics, which is expressed in different forms of state statistic reporting system of educational structures. It helps to a very large extent in characterizing the dynamics of processes taking place at this or that stage of educational hierarchy.

While developing and calculating Tables 1 to 11 on Education for All lots of materials have been obtained from state and sector statistic reports, randomized surveys, methods of expert assessment, extrapolation, average data calculation and continuous correlation of the data obtained.

Mention should be made that the last general census in the Republic took place in 1989. It reflects the age and sex structure of the total population, its active part, including the one engaged and not engaged in public production. At the same time all the calculations related to these indicators are those made for Minmacroeconomstat and the Ministry of Labor and in absolute numbers should not be published in media (the tables attached to this Report are accompanied by the footnote informing about the impossibility to use the data in absolute numbers in printed media).

Table 1. Indicator 1 "Gross enrolment ratio in early childhood development programmes"

  1. Data Sources:

When calculating this table data it is assumed that official pre-school age is 1-6 since it is impossible to split data on the 3 to 5 year pre-school cohort by age, sex and regions.

Table 2: Indicator 2 "Percentage of new entrants to Grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programme during at least one year (or one enrolment period)"

  1. Data Sources:
  1. annual state statistic reporting Forms

76 –P – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the reported year – OSH-1 "Report of general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts and Tashkent city, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors (new entrants to Grade 1, without repetition rate);

Table 3: Indicator 3 and 4 – Apparent (Gross) and net intake rates in primary school"

  1. Data Source:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

76 –P – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the reported year – OSH-1 "Report of a general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates (3-4 grades) and that by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent city, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors (new entrants to grade 1, without repetition rate);

- "Official primary school starting age – theoretically this age is assumed to be 7 years" – Assessment calculations of the Statistics Department of Minmacroeconomstat and the Ministry of Labor.

Data related to the population in absolute figures are not liable for publication.

Table 4: Indicators 5 and 6 – "Gross and net enrolment rates in primary education"

  1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

76 –P – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the reported year – OSH-1 "Report of a general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates (3-4 grades) and that by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent City, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors.

- "Official primary school starting age – theoretically this age is assumed to be 7 –10-11 years"Assessment calculations of the Statistics Department of Minmacroeconomstat and the Ministry of Labor.

Data related to the population in absolute figures are not liable for publication.

Table 5: Indicator 7 and 8 - "Public expenditure on primary education as percentage of GNP and of total public expenditure on education (all levels); and Public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as percentage of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita"

  1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

annual book of statistic data "Republic of Uzbekistan in 1994 – 1998) – sections:

"General economy development indicators" – it includes indicators of Gross National Product - GDP",

"Finances and Credit" – it includes indicators as to the public budget formation, public budget expenditures for social-cultural activities by sectors and etc.

4-NK (fin) "School as well as pre-school receipts and use of financial means". This Form is usually filled in based on annual reports of oblast Education Departments (centralized accounting by rayon, city, and oblast Education Departments) by the end of the accounting year and is split into sections:

  1. Availability of financial means

Including:

Receipts of the current year:

-out of public and local budgets

-education fee

  1. Under the contracts with enterprises, organizations, institutions
  2. From population
  • Rendering services to the population
  • Other paid services
  • Contributions and donations
  • Leasing

c) other incoming

  1. Use of financial means

Including:

- material expenditures –

  • payment for non-material services

out of total expenditures:

  • wages
  • scholarship
  • deduction for social insurance
  • capital repair expenses
  • expenditures for equipment and appliances procurement
  • other expenditures
  1. annual sector reports:

Accounting of the Ministry of Finances on budget distribution by the end of accounting year. It includes data on actual budget administration in the Republic split by regions, ministries, sectors and expenditure items:

Indicators on the aforementioned items do not require additional calculations and evaluation.

Expenditures for primary education are not given as a separate item, they are included into total expenditures.

Approximate assessment of expenditures per pupil by Grades and schools for 1997 is given below.

Assessment of expenditure per pupil in 1997 (without family expenditures)**

Expenditures

Pre-schools

1-4 school Grades

5-9 school Grades

10-11 school Grades

Voc-technical schools

Second. special schools

Higher schools

Total mln sums

11944,8

13732,4

15158,9

3939,5

5367*

4059,1

3953,2

Per pupil thousand sums

17,5

5,4

6,8

6,9

25,8*

24

35

*) Budget expenditures

**) Data are taken from the magazine "Economicheskoye obozreniye - Economic Review") No 1(5), February 1999.

Given difficulties in getting access to data on capital expenditures for education and staff training in compatible prices this type of expenditures is not included into the Total expenditure column of this table.

However, data for a number of years are given below.

Dynamics of capital contributions used for education development in Uzbekistan (1993-1997*

 

1993 ?.

1994 ?.

1995 ?.

1996 ?.

1997 ?.

Total in the sector (in current prices mln sums)

75,2

505,1

1603,8

3505,6

6083,6

The same in % to the previous year in real terms)

95

80

102,6

124,4

124,8

New school places (thous.)

123,4

72,5

47,9

63,5

64,1

*) Data from the Magazine ""Economicheskoye obozreniye No1(5), February 1999

According to the assessment predictions made education expenditures will go up to 248 bln sums by the year 2005. Prognosis of the current budget made in line with the pre-planned expenditures is based on the real DNP growth rate, i.e. 4,5% in 1999 and 5% in 2000. Under the current GDP growth rate and the volume of public expenditures equal to 32-34% of GDP, education expenditures will make up about 7-8% of GDP. In terms of budget expenditures it means increase from 24 to 26%. In case GDP growth rate and budget receipts were low, then preplanned expenditures on education as percentage of GDP and that of budget would go up (ADB assessment).

Expenditures on education in Uzbekistan for 1999

 

1999 ???

As percentage of GDP %%

8,1

As percentage of total public budget %%

23,8

Expenditure on school education

 

Pre-school %%

17

Secondary %%

51

Higher secondary %%

1

Higher %%

7

Vocational-technical %%

17

other (including teacher qualification upgrading)

8

Table 6: Indicators 9 and 10 – Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications; and percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards"

1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Form: 83- RIK – "Summary Report on the teaching staff number and composition in general or formal basic schools", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the accounting year. This annual report includes data on the teachers’ cohort split by grade groups, education level, sex and category with distribution by different subjects. It also includes information on the teachers that have moved out by the reasons of their departure. All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent City, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors.

The indicator "Ratio of primary school teachers with required academic qualifications" is calculated was a percentage of teachers having tertiary and secondary special pedagogic education (this refers only to primary school teachers. This category of teachers is trained both by higher schools and secondary special pedagogic schools) of the total number of primary school teachers multiplied by 100.

Table 7: Indicator 11 – "Pupil-teacher ratios in primary education"

Data sources:

  1. Table 6: Indicators 9 and 10 – "Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications; and Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards"
  2. Table 4: Indicators 5 and 6 – "Gross and net enrolment ratios in primary education"

The indicator is calculated by means of dividing the total number of pupils enrolled in primary education by the number of teachers.

Table 8: Indicator 12 "Repetition rates in primary education by grade"

  1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

76 –RIK – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school of formal basic school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the accounting year – OSH-1 "Report of a general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates (3-4 grades) and that by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent City, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors.

  1. due to the lack of statistic accounting related to the repeaters split by sex, the cohort of boys-girls is calculated as percentage of the total cohort split by sex.

The calculation is done based on the "Technical Guidelines" methodology.

Table 9: Indicators 13 and 14 – Survival rate to Grade 5 and coefficient of efficiency

  1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

76 –RIK – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school of formal basic school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the accounting year – OSH-1 "Report of a general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates (3-4 grades) and that by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent City, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors.

  1. due to the lack of statistic accounting related to the repeaters split by sex, the cohort of boys-girls is calculated as percentage of the total cohort split by sex.

The calculation is done based on the "Technical Guidelines" methodology.

Model (diagram) of cohort dynamics for 1996-1997 includes statistic data on cohort, on repeaters and 1993 migration of the first Grade pupils, 1994 - second Grade pupils, 1995 - third Grade pupils, 1996 - fourth Grade pupils and 1997 - fifth Grade pupils. Mortality rate among general school pupils is not high.

Much attention is given to brining down the repetition rate, which actually is going down from year to year and is not considerable within total pupil cohort.

Favorable and negative balance of migration in the Republic, determined by a number of objective and subjective reasons, considerably influenced primary education coefficient of efficiency (in the course of a number of years there was observed a considerable outflow of children due to the movement of their parents out of the Republic. On the other hand an inflow has also taken place at some period of time). That is why the Input-Output ration is practically equal to 1.

On the whole, based on the calculated Coefficient of efficiency and Input-Output ratio, conclusion can be made that primary education efficiency in Uzbekistan is close to ideal.

Table 10: Indicator 15 – Percentage of pupils having reached at least Grade 4 of primary schooling who master a set of nationally defined basic learning competencies"

  1. Data sources:

a) annual state statistic reporting Forms:

76 –RIK – Annual summary "Report of a general secondary school of formal basic school", which is compiled on the basis of annual report of every school (regardless of the form of ownership) by October 5 of the accounting year – OSH-1 "Report of a general secondary school". This annual report includes data on the students’ cohort split by grade, age and sex. It also includes drop-out rate, number of graduates (3-4 grades) and that by incomplete (9 grades) and complete (11 grades) general secondary school (formal basic school). All these data are split by regions (Republic of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, Tashkent City, also by urban and rural areas) and by sectors.

  1. due to the lack of statistic accounting related to the repeaters split by gender, the cohort of boys-girls is calculated as percentage of the total cohort split by gender.

Due to the lack of statistic data as to the learning competencies in each subject, they are determined by assessment method taking into account repeaters’ drop-out rate and specific weight of different subjects within the curricula.

Table 11: Indicators 16, 17 and 18 – "Literacy rates of population aged 15-24 and 15 years old and over, and Literacy gender Parity Index"

Data sources – Assessment made by the Statistics Department under Minmacroeconomstat and the Ministry of Labor.

Annual estimation data "Population aged 15-24 and over" as of the end of accounting year.

While developing age-gender structure "Population aged 15-24 and over" the Statistics Department under Minmacroeconomstat and the Ministry of Labor have used extrapolated 1989 general census data taking into account calculated coefficients of birth, mortality and migration rates.

Given that no general census close to the periods under consideration has been made, it should be borne in mind that this table is a calculated one and there may be some faults in absolute values. Their specification can be made on the basis of the coming general census (the date of it has not been fixed yet). That is why these data publication in absolute values is not permissible.

Mention should be made that more than 97% of the population in Uzbekistan are literate, let alone those aged 15-24 for whom formal basic education is mandatory. It is estimated that there are no people aged 15-24 in the country without primary education. True, there is an insignificant proportion of people living in the remote mountainous and scarcely populated areas that are unable to write or read, but they belong to the category of aged people, not able to work any more.


Previous Page Next Page