|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
GOAL, OBJECTIVES AND STAGES OF THE NATIONAL STAFF TRAINING PROGRAM
Given the aforementioned the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov has developed conceptual principles of education and staff training system reforming. These principles are based on stage-by-stage character and priority of the reforms.
The core of the aforementioned concept is a basically new National staff training model, which has been righteously called the "Model of Islam Karimov".
In order to ensure the implementation of the National staff training model, radial reforming of the current system there has been developed and is being implemented the National staff training program. Oliy Mazhilis (Parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan approved of this Program in August 29, 1997 as a Law.
Mention should be made that this model is a unique one. International practice does not know similar models. Analysis of the experience in training system reforming that has been accumulated by developed democratic countries, makes it possible to come to the following conclusion: transformations have been done, as a rule, only in education system.
Practically speaking, other stakeholders an individual, governmental and non-governmental institutions, production sector and science - have not been involved into the staff training and utilization process. Moreover, the reforms carried out had neither adequate width nor depth or scientific validity. The state and society have not been initiators and guarantors of these reforms.
The essence and the peculiarity of the National staff training model is its system integrity. The basic components of this system are - individual, state and society, continuous education, science and production.
Individual is the key subject and object of the staff training system, the user and manufacturer of educational services;
State and society are guarantors of staff training and utilization; they are carrying out regulation and control over the system of education and staff training;
Continuous education is the basis for training qualified and competitive staff. It covers all types of education, public educational standards, structure and performance environment;
Science is a producer and user of highly qualified specialists, designer of advanced pedagogic and information technologies;
Production is the key client that determines the staffing needs, as well as the staff quality and competence level requirements. Production is a co-financier and co-supplier of staff training system.
In line with Article 3 of the Law "On Education" education is proclaimed to be a priority sphere of social development in the Republic of Uzbekistan aimed to meet economic, social, scientific-technical and cultural needs of an individual, society and state.
Basic principles of state policy in the field of education are:
Humanistic, democratic character of education and upbringing;
Education continuity and succession;
Mandatory general secondary and also secondary special, vocational-technical education;
Free choice of the type of secondary special or vocational-technical education: academic lyceum or vocational college;
Secular character of educational system;
General access to education within the public educational standards;
Unity and differentiated approach to the selection of educational and vocational programs;
Encouragement of literacy and talent;
Combination of public and non-public management within education system.
Continuous education system functioning is ensured by public educational standards, continuity of educational and vocational programs of different types. This system includes the following types of education:
General secondary education;
Secondary special, vocational education;
Qualification upgrading and staff retraining;
Family and self-education.
It provides for the formation of a healthy, developed child, encouraging learning interests and preparing a child to systematic education. Children under six seven years are covered by this type of education in public and private pre-school institutions and in the family. Makhallya, non-governmental and charitable organizations as well as international funds are actively involved into the implementation of the pre-school goals and objectives.
General secondary education
9-year secondary education (I-IX Grades) is mandatory. It includes primary education (I-IV Grades) and provides systematic basic knowledge in different sciences, develops need in getting knowledge, forms basic learning, scientific and cultural knowledge, fosters spiritual-moral qualities based on the national and general humane spiritual values, develops labor skills, creative thinking and conscientious attitude to environment and to the choice of profession.
Mandatory secondary special and vocational education. Based on general secondary education it lasts three years and is independent within the system of continuous education. Students are free to choose between two kinds of vocational education academic lyceum or vocational college.
Academic lyceum provides secondary special education in line with state educational standards, intensive intellectual development, and profound, specialized, differentiated, professionally oriented education according to the abilities and interests of its students.
Students of academic lyceums have the opportunity to upgrade their knowledge in the field they have chosen (humanitarian, technical, agrarian sciences and etc.) and to form special professional skills. These skills will help them to acquire deep knowledge and enable them to continue education in a certain higher school or to use this knowledge in their working activity.
Vocational college provides secondary special, vocational education within the framework of current public educational standard; it also provides for profound development of students vocational inclinations, skills and experiences and getting one or several specialties of the chosen profession.
Vocational colleges are educational institutions of a new type in terms of their equipment, pedagogic staff and educational process organization. These institutions give the possibility to master one or more modern professions and acquire profound theoretical knowledge in subjects under study.
Education that students get in academic lyceums and vocational colleges provides for profound knowledge and getting specialties chosen by the students. Graduates of academic lyceums and vocational colleges get state standard diplomas, allowing them to continue education at further education levels or work according to the acquired specialties and professions.
It is based on secondary special or vocational education and has two stages or programs: Bachelor of Science and Master of Science Programs.
Students are admitted to higher schools on the basis of grants or on a fee paid contractual basis.
Bachelor of Science Program - is basic tertiary education with fundamental and applied knowledge in chosen specialties. The length of education is not less than four years.
On completing this program the graduates go through state attestation and based on its results they are awarded the degree of a "Bachelor of Science" in the chosen field and the state standard diploma. This diploma gives them the right to carry out professional activity.
Master of Science Program higher education giving fundamental and applied knowledge in specific specialty. The length of education is not less than two years if it is based on Bachelor of Science Program.
Again, at the end of this Program the State Attestation Committee makes a decision on awarding the Masters degree. Masters of Science get state standard diplomas, and alongside with them they get the right to carry out professional activity.
Post-graduate education is meant to meet the needs of the society in highly qualified scientific and pedagogic staff, to satisfy creative educational-vocational interests of an individual.
Students can get post-graduate education in higher schools and scientific-research institutions (post-graduate courses, Doctor of Sciences programs), post-graduate studentship. Candidate of Sciences and Doctor of Sciences programs are topped by the thesis defense. Based on the results of final attestation graduates are awarded degrees of a Candidate of Sciences or that of a Doctor of Sciences accordingly and diplomas of state standard.
Staff qualification upgrading and retraining
It is meant to renew and expand professional knowledge and skills. Based on the results of staff education that has been got in institutions of qualification upgrading and retraining professionals are awarded state standard certificate.
In order to meet individual educational needs of children and adolescents, to organize their free time and recreation, state bodies, public organizations as well as other legal and physical entities set up out-of-school public and private educational institutions of cultural, esthetic, scientific, technical, sport and other directions.
Continuous educational system development is based on:
education priority, which is determined by the primary character of its development, prestige of knowledge, education and high level intellect;
education democratization, which implies expanding school independence in choosing methods of teaching and education, switching to public-communal education management system.
education humanization, which implies revealing the abilities an individual may posses, meeting his or her diverse educational requirements, ensuring the priority of national and general human values, harmonization of interrelation between an individual, society and environment;
education humanitarization, which means helping students to form esthetically rich outlook, high spiritual value, culture and creative thinking;
national character of education, which is expressed in harmonic integrity with the national history, national traditions and customs. It is aimed at preserving and enriching the culture of the peoples, inhabiting Uzbekistan. While fostering respect to the history and culture of other peoples, it provides for recognizing education as an important mechanism of national development;
integrity of education and upbringing aimed to ensure an all-round development of a person;
identification of gifted young people, creating conditions for consisted acquirement of fundamental and special knowledge at the highest possible educational level.
Specific feature of the National Model of continuous education is introduction of mandatory nine-year general secondary and three-year secondary special and vocational education as independent education types. They provide for continuity in transfer from general education to vocational educational programs.
The system of education, based on the principles, which ensure content continuity of educational and vocational programs. This system takes into account national and regional economic development, the achievements of science, culture, and technology. Its aim is to form a creatively thinking person, characterized by all-round development and combination of high spiritual-moral qualities, culture and professionalism.
Goals and objectives of the National Staff Training Program
Program goal to radically reform education sector, to refuse from its ideological limitations, to create national system of training highly qualified staff, equal to that of developed democratic countries and able to meet spiritual and moral requirements.
In order to implement the goal identified it is necessary to achieve the following objectives:
Stages of the National Program Implementation
Goals and objectives of the National Program are being implemented gradually.
First stage (1997-2001) formation of legal, staffing, scientific-methodological and financial conditions for the Program reforming and development whereby preserving positive potential of the current staff training system.
At this stage it is necessary:
To carry out restructuring and radical renovation of education system content in line with the Law "On Education";
To update the qualification of pedagogic and scientific staff, to bring it to the level adequate to meet contemporary needs;
To develop and introduce state educational standards, which will determine the necessary requirements to the performance quality and to students qualification, to their cultural and spiritual moral level;
To develop and introduce new generation training and methodological complexes, new didactic and informational support to educational process;
To prepare essential technical, teaching methodological and staff basis for secondary special and vocational education;
To improve fund-raising mechanisms for education and staff training sector, to create competitive environment in the sphere of educational services, to ensure the development of public schools alongside with the private ones;
To develop and introduce a rating system of school performance evaluation and a system of monitoring staff training quality and staff requirements;
To expand and reinforce international ties, to develop and implement real measures, aimed to involve international donor organizations and funds into staff training, as well as to attract foreign investments into education sector of the Republic;
To carry out monitoring of the national staff training program implementation.
At this stage the enrolment of children into school at the age of 6-7 will be done taking into account their physical and mental development. Work is going on in order to prepare the necessary number of school seats, adequately equipped and having the required number of teachers.
Based on the results of this stage monitoring the directions of the National Program implementation will be specified.
Second stage (2001-2005) - full-scale implementation of the National Program, its amendment based on the experience accumulated while taking into account labor market development and current social-economic conditions.
At this stage transition to mandatory 22- year general secondary and secondary special, vocational education and also to differentiated education based on the individual abilities and capabilities of students will be completed.
School staffing with specially trained professionals will be ensured and competitive environment for their performance will be formed.
Technical and informational reinforcement of educational institutions will be continued. High quality textbooks, training materials and advanced pedagogic technologies will support educational process. The system of continuous education will be reinforced by computer informational technologies.
Mechanisms, providing market formation in the sphere of educational services will start functioning to the full extent.
Third stage (2005 and over) perfection and further development of staff training system based on the analysis and summary of the experience accumulated and in accord with the prospects of the country social-economic development.
Further reinforcement of capacity building, staffing and informational basis of educational institutions will be carried out further. Supply of educational process with modern educational-methodological complexes and advanced technologies will be completed.
Formation and development of the national (elite) tertiary school will be carried out.. Independence and self-governance forms of vocational schools will be strengthened.
Educational process will be supported by computer technology. The system of continuous education will be reinforced by computer informational network, integrated into the global informational networks.
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF CONTINUOUS EDUCATION AND STAFF TRAINING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
The formation and development of continuous education and staff training system includes the following priority directions:
Continuous education. New continuous system, which will incorporate pre-school, general secondary and special secondary schools as well as vocational education, is being formed now. Two-level system of tertiary vocational education, providing for a Bachelors and Masters degree is being introduced now. Post-graduate courses aimed to train specialists with Candidate of Sciences and Doctor of Sciences Degrees will get further development.
Educational institutions on staff qualification upgrading and retraining, able to compete in the current market, are being set up.
Regionalization and restructuring of educational institutions is going on. Development monitoring and efficiency evaluation of continuous education system is being done.
Priority of pedagogic staff training and retraining for the system of continuous education is ensured.
Pedagogic and scientific-pedagogic staff training, retraining and qualification upgrading. A very flexible system for qualification upgrading and pedagogic staff retraining is being formed. It is meant to ensure high quality and sustainable education system development. Pedagogic staff preventive retraining and qualification upgrading is being done in order to maintain their professional qualities at competitive level.
Tertiary schools set up special faculties on training highly qualified teachers and in the regions of the Republic they open special centers for qualification upgrading and retraining teachers and specialists for general secondary and secondary special, vocational education.
Reforming education process content. It is being implemented on the basis of public education standards and it provides for its humanization, staff training and education on the principles of national independence, taking into account rich spiritual and intellectual potential of the people and general human values. Special attention is being paid to the students personality, to fostering in him the cult of education, knowledge and that of general learning activity, to the formation of independence, the feeling of pride and self esteem.
Targeted state policy aimed to increase authority, commitment and professionalism of pedagogic staff is being pursued. Advanced pedagogic technologies, new curricula, forms and methods of teaching are being introduced.
Spiritual moral education and instructive activity. Effective organizational and pedagogic forms as well as ways of spiritual moral education of the young generation are being developed and introduced. They are based on rich national cultural and historical traditions, customs and general human values. The priority of education and comprehensive development of a person is ensured. Educational and instructive activity is being perfected and it covers the whole nation in order to bring up the level of general and pedagogic culture.
There is close co-operation in the country of educational institutions with the parents, family, makhallya committees, with the non-governmental center "Mainaviyat va mairifat", other NGOs, funds dealing with the formation of a creative, active individual, committed to the principles of national independence and able to make a real contribution into the society progress.
Gifted children and talented youth. Much attention is given in the country to the provision of methodology, psycho-pedagogic and institutional conditions for the identification, education and monitoring of gifted children and young people. In order to be able to do that the national data bank is being formed. The best pedagogues and scientists are involved into the development of special educational programs and advanced pedagogic technologies, into their active participation in the national educational process. Elite educational institutions are being set up. They are used as centers where science and technology, politics and economics, culture and arts are taught. Alongside with it a targeted activity is being carried out in order to ensure access to general and vocational education for the gifted children and talented youth in the overseas countries. Students of academic lyceums and in the first place gifted and talented ones have the possibility to reveal and develop their natural abilities, to make use of their special gift, to advance their knowledge in specific fields and scientific directions.
Education system management. Structural changes and development of public and private institutions functioning in the field of continuous education and staff training are under the state regulation and supervision. The terms of reference of all the education management bodies at different levels are determined on the basis of the Law "On education". Legal-normative basis of education sector is being developed. Conditions are created for educational institutions to be able to expand their rights and independence in terms of their financial-economic activity as well as education process organization. In line with the procedure determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan all the educational institutions are going through the process of accreditation and certification. Based on the results of such certification the right to carry out educational activity is granted to schools.
An effective system of school management is introduced through the formation of Trustee Boards or Supervision Committees. Such bodies include representatives from organizations founders, local authorities, business, social organizations, funds and sponsors.
Quality control system formation in the field of vocational education. A public body responsible for the certification of the vocational education quality is being set up. It will be independent of education management bodies. State educational standards meeting perspective requirements of the country social and economic development are being devised. Rating system to evaluate the performance of different schools, the quality of pedagogic staff as well as the knowledge level of students is being introduced in the country. Both public and other forms to control the quality of staff training are being introduced. The system of final attestation to evaluate the knowledge level of general school graduates is being updated.
Education system financing. The financing system of education sector is being updated. Multi-optional (both from budget and extra-budget sources) financing system for education and staff training sector is being introduced. Besides that serious attention is given to self-financing scheme, private and foreign investments into education sector are being encouraged. It was necessary to develop the mechanism of granting education credits to the citizen of the Republic with the flexible system of their repayment. The role of donors in the technical supply of continuous education and staff training system is becoming more significant.
Growing revenues of educational institutions are ensured due to the fee paid educational services, entrepreneurial, consultative, expert, publishing, industrial, scientific and other activity, which is line with their Charters objectives.
Technical supply. A network of academic lyceums and vocational colleges is being created. Their location is chosen with due regard to demographic and geographic conditions of each of the regions. An attempt is being made to cover the maximum of students with education services without separating them from their families.
Measures are taken for the capital repair of the existing and construction of new educational institutions, for equipping them in accordance with normative requirements and with due regard to the modern technology level.
Support is given to the formation of specialized industries oriented at the supply of educational institutions with the necessary equipment, appliances, tools, technical, electronic and didactic means of education. Computerization and informational supply of education process at all the levels is going on.
Creation of informational space for education system. Informational supply of educational process is based on modern information technologies, computerization and computer networks. The role of mass media in education process is getting more important. More and more attention is given to the intellectual character of TV and radio educational programs. Publishing capacity of science and education is getting more developed, which makes it possible to form sustainable supply of educational, methodological, scientific, encyclopedic and reference literature.
Development of educational services market. A competitive market of educational services is being formed through developing marketing in the sphere of education and staff training. Capacity is created for the development of public and private educational institutions while forming a competitive environment in the sphere of education and staff training alongside with the state regulation of the educational services market. A system of fee paid consultative and additional (not provided by the basic educational programs) educational services is being developed.
Social guarantees and state support in the sphere of education. Public policy aimed to bring up the prestige and social status of teaching activity is consistently implemented. Necessary conditions are created for the students and teachers to be able to study, have rest and rehabilitate their health.
Educational institutions and health bodies take all the necessary measures in order to sustain and improve the health of children and young students. Healthy direction of educational process and introduction of the healthy life style norms are given much attention. In order to bring up students medical hygienic culture, their sport activity and physical development level organizational methodological approaches are constantly improved. Special conditions are created for the children with health and development problems for their better adaptation to the environment.
Integration forms of science and educational process. Advanced applied research in the field of education and staff training are carried out, including research in the field of pedagogy. Scientific-methodological workouts are developed in order to ensure education quality in line with the state educational standards. Scientists working in the field of fundamental and applied science are encouraged to take an active part in educational process. Much importance is given to interrelationship of pedagogic and research processes. Scientific technical activity of young people is supported in every possible way.
Integration development of production and education system. Setting up production educational complexes and their development is promoted. They are being equipped with modern appliances, devices and tools. Production potential of enterprises in training staff and carrying out joint scientific-technological work is effectively used. Hands-on staff training is very much supported. Much attention is paid to practical qualification upgrading of pedagogic staff in the field of advanced technology.
International co-operation in the field of education and staff training. International legal basis for staff training is being formed. Priority directions of international co-operation are being implemented. International educational structures are being developed, exchange programs for students and teachers are being expanded. Legal basis for the international recognition of the national education certificates is taken care of. Related ministries and sectors, embassies of the Republic of Uzbekistan in overseas countries are working actively in order to attract direct and indirect foreign investments into the sphere of staff training.
Some results of the reforms being carried out in accord with the National Staff Training Program
The most important achievement so far is that the National staff training Program has become an integral part of the activity of all the public structures, non-governmental organizations, and all the citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In other words it has become the concern of all the people, the whole nation.
The National Staff Training Program being the outcome and the achievement of Uzbekistans independence is becoming a prerequisite and the basis for the creation of a developed democratic state and civil society, an equal member of the global developed community.
It is quite obvious today that the National Staff Training Program is not limited to education and staff training system reform due to the width and depth of its provisions. In fact its social importance can hardly be overestimated.
This is where a deep scientific approach and the prescience of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.Karimov is revealed, for he has incorporated into the National Staff Training Program ideas and provisions, which provide for an "explosive effect" in the social processes of Uzbekistan.
During the period of independence a new social-political climate and new values have been formed. They objectively determined changes in education, specific attitude towards it on behalf of the society on the whole and that of the young people in particular.
The National Staff Training Program, measures taken for its implementation, created understanding on the part of the society as to the high values of modern education. These values influence an all-round development of an individual as well as social and economic development of the country on the whole. Ideas and provisions of the National Program have changed understanding as to the role and place of education in the society progressive development. They reveal deep, society and person oriented educational values.
A targeted state policy in the field of education that is being implemented by the leadership of the country the first President of Uzbekistan I.Karimov has in fact become a key issue of social, political and economic reforms in the Republic.
In the course of the last two years real practical measures have taken place as to the implementation of the ideas and provisions of the National Staff Training Program.
Principally new legal-normative basis for the staff training and continuous education system has been created. Decrees issued by the President of the country, decisions and orders of the Cabinet of Ministers regulating the management of continuous education system and that of the activity content of all the participants of the staff training process have been passed and are consistently being implemented.
Principally new provisions related to the types of continuous education have been put into force. They determine the organization and the content of these activity types. Besides that they determine the conditions for the functioning and interrelation of educational, managerial, scientific and methodological institutions and organizations under the umbrella of continuous education system. There have been determined the order and mechanisms of state educational standards introduction, that of new curricula and programs for all the types and levels of continuous and interrelated educational process. Legal basis for the formation of educational services market and marketing in the sphere of staff training, for the creation of competitive environment in this sphere is under development. So far, normative basis and conditions for the attestation of pedagogic staff, attestation and certification of educational institutions have been developed and put into practice.
Much work has been done for the radical educational content reforming, for ensuring its continuity and for targeting it at the all-round development of an Individual.
In 1998-1999 academic year 24 schools completed the approbation of a state educational standard of the 9-year general secondary education. This standard includes modern basic curriculum, standard curricula and programs on 23 subjects, which provide qualitative general secondary education in line with the requirements of the National Program. A unified rating system devised for the evaluation of the students knowledge quality has been tried.
In 1998 there were published 7 types of textbooks matching the curricula for the 5-6 grades of a general secondary school. Yet 23 more are coming and they are expected to be available by the beginning of 1999-2000 academic year. 8 textbooks have been published for the classes where the teaching process is not being done in the national language and by the beginning of a new academic year 20 more of them are to be published.
In 1998-1999 academic year experimental curricula and programs as well as related training-normative documents were tried in 32 newly set up academic lyceums and vocational colleges. 50 educational standards, which include 250 curricula, on training junior specialists in vocational colleges and profound education in academic lyceums have been put into practice.
By the beginning of a new 1999-2000 academic year there has been completed the development of 95 state educational standards for the newly set up academic lyceums and vocational colleges. About 1000 curricula have been developed based on the training directions, specialties for junior professionals and the profile of thorough studies.
After thorough expert examination an experimental list of literature has been developed, which is to be recommended to the newly formed academic lyceums and vocational colleges.
251 state educational standards for the Bachelors Degree have been developed and are being implemented now. Training-normative documents have been devised and are undergoing practical expertise. Among them there is the Classifier of tertiary education directions and specialties, Qualification requirements to the Bachelor of Science and Master of Science, new curricula and programs on Bachelor of Science training, which take into account the necessity to ensure continuity of educational and vocational programs.
Continuous education staffing. The program of training, retraining and staffing of educational institutions dealing with continuous education of pedagogic and engineering- pedagogic staff of new generation is being implemented.
In order to staff academic lyceums and vocational colleges with highly qualified specialists there has been developed and implemented a Targeted Program, which is aimed at selection, certification, training and qualification upgrading of managerial and pedagogic staff.
On the whole only in the course of the reforming period it is necessary to train more that 50 thousand teachers on 86 new engineering and pedagogic directions of Bachelor of Science program for secondary special and vocational schools.
Basic higher schools and also to the extent possible the capacity of the "Ustoz" Fund are being actively used in order to train and retrain teaching staff. In 1998 due to the Funds grants 71 teachers have got training abroad, 37 of them have been trained for the system of secondary special and vocational education. 980 teachers have upgraded their qualification with the help of foreign specialists. In the course of the first half of 1999 more than 200 teachers have been retrained in the resource center of the aforementioned Fund, 100 of them are teachers of academic lyceums and vocational colleges.
Among the priority tasks of the first stage it is also necessary to mention continuous education restructuring and renovation of the management system.
According to the National staff training model beginning with 1998-1999 academic year we have started introduction of new educational types: 9-year general, secondary special, vocational an d two-stage tertiary education. The functions and tasks of many higher schools have been revised. In this way radical structural and content reforming of continuous education and staff training system has been ensured.
In order to effectively manage the new system of continuous education a number of structural sub-divisions and institutions have been formed.
Measures to restructure the system of continuous education, to expand the network of educational institutions have been taken. Based on the analyses of the country development prospects and given the national staff requirements, only in 1999 there were formed new tertiary educational institutions within the system of higher education. Faculties and departments dealing with principally new directions of training specialists have been arranged under the umbrellas of the current higher schools; additional quotas have been determined for priority staff training directions. Suffice to remind here of Tashkent Islamic University, departments for training medical nurses of higher qualification under medical institutes, the faculty of international journalism under the Tashkent State University of Foreign languages (GUMYA), the faculty of international tourism under the Tashkent Economic University and etc.
The process of structural-content transformations is going on. It is aimed at granting independence and wide autonomy to educational institutions, at introduction market mechanisms into their activity, at perfecting the market of educational services, at bringing up the effectiveness and interrelation of management structures. New bodies to manage the system itself and educational institutions are being formed. These are non-governmental management bodies.
Construction, reconstruction and supply of educational institutions. In 1998 181 newly built and reconstructed schools for 72945 students were put into operation. At the same time 555 schools, 309 pre-schools and 25 out-of-school institutions have undergone capital repair.
This year it is planned to put into operation 117 secondary special and general vocational schools. 109 will undergo radical restructuring and profile changing.
During the reform period the number of academic lyceums and vocational colleges, including 32 that were put into operation in 1998, reached 149. The total number of academic lyceums and vocational colleges will make up 1600 by the year 2005. This is the period of the National Staff Training Program implementation. These schools will cover more than half a million of young boys and girls.
In Uzbekistan education expenditures in 1998 made up 7,6% of GDP, and in 1999 it is planned to increase this figure to 8,1%. It is estimated that in the year 2000 this figure will make up 8,4%.
The data on foreign investments into the development of a unique, absolutely new system of secondary special, vocational education is quite notable. For example, anticipated foreign investments into the equipment of colleges, which train junior professionals for the economy sectors and that of the social sphere, are to be made by the Asian Development Bank, OESF (Japan) and EDCF (Korea). The volumes of these allocations are USD 150 million, USD 200 million and USD 35 million accordingly.
Special attention is given to furnishing schools, to supply of equipment, devices, appliances and tools. International experience is being closely studied Measures are taken to create specialized industries in the Republic, which will produce equipment, tools, appliances, technical, electronic and didactic materials for education sector.
Thus, the implementation of the National Staff Training Program and its core the National Model will further strengthen the country and society potential, the belief in the possibility and the commitment to achieve a noble goal that has been identified by the people of Uzbekistan and that is to create a prosperous, strong, democratic state and a civil society.