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6.2.8 Trends of Net Enrolment Ratio by Gender and Geographical Location in 1994 and 1998

 

Year

1994

1998

Gender Parity Index NER

Urban

MF

102.2

104.5

 
 

M

102.9

105.2

1.0

 

F

101.5

103.8

 

Rural

MF

86.6

87.9

 
 

M

89.5

90.9

0.9

 

F

83.3

84.6

 

Source: Indicator 5 & 6

The trend in total net enrolment rates (NER) between 1994 and 1998 for the urban area is over 100%. The trend for male and female is over 100% and there is a slight increase between 1994 and 1998. The total NER and male/female NER between both years increased slightly. It can be seen that the provincial and school authorities are ensuring that children of official school age are attending school. This could also be said that the rural areas where the total gross enrolment and for male and female GER increased between 1994 and 1998.

6.2.9 Trends in official Primary School Age by Geographical Area and by Gender in 1994 and 1998

Year

 

1994

     

1998

   
Province

M

F

MF

%F

M

F

MF

%F

Torba

525

532

1,057

50.3

739

702

1,441

48.7

Sanma

2,632

2,227

4,859

45.8%

3,033

2,714

5,747

47.2

Penama

2,306

2,054

4,630

44.4

2,668

2,375

5,043

47.1

Malampa

3,992

2,880

6,872

41.9

3,398

3,218

6,616

48.6

Shefa

3,284

3,029

6,313

48.0

4,047

3,786

7,833

48.3

Tafea

2,592

2,289

4,881

46.9

2,727

2,419

5,144

47.0

Total

15,331

13,011

26,342

46.0

16,612

15,212

31,824

47.8

Urban

2,041

1,885

3,926

48.0

2,607

2,331

4,938

47.2

Rural

13,023

10,947

23,971

45.7

14,605

12,281

26,886

45.7

Source: Indicator 5 & 6

Indicators 5 & 6 show that 1994 student enrolment of primary age children in Malampa Province had the highest number of students enrolment totalling 6872. Shefa Province had the second highest with 6313. The trend changed in 1998 where Shefa Province had the highest enrolment with 7833 and Malampa Province with 6616. The percentage of females tends to be static between 1994 and 1998. The Torba Province had decrease a decrease in percentage from 50.3% to 48.7%. In the rural areas, there is a major increase between 1994 and 998 from 23,971 to 26,886. The female percentage remained the same.

6.2.10 Trends in Enrolment of Official Primary School-Age by Geographical Location and Type of Institution

Year   1994   1998
Province Enrolment – Public & Private % Private Enrolment Public & Private % Private
Torba 1,057 0 1,441 1.9
Sanma 4,859 6.5 5,747 6.0
Penama 4,630 3.3 5,043 1.6
Malampa 6,872 4,3 6,616 4.0
Shefa 6,313 7.0 7,833 3.3
Tafea 4,881 4.9 5,144 1.7
Total 28,342 5.1 31,824 3.4
Urban 4,372 10.2 4,938 10.2
Rural 23,971 4.1 26,886 2.1

Source: Indicator 5 & 6

Indicators 5 and 6 show that 90-95% of children of ages 6 to 11 years go to public schools. In all the provinces, the trend from 1994 to 1998 shows a decrease in the number of children attending private schools. Torba Province, however, shows and increase in enrolment of children ages 6-11 in the same period. For urban areas, the percentage of children enroled in primary schools remained the same at 10.2% as in rural areas the number decreased from 4.1% to 2.1%.

6.2.11 Teaching Staff – Primary

Trends of Teaching Staff by Geographical Location and by Gender 1994 and 1998

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

Torba

72

37

35

104

70

34

Sanma

407

219

188

526

235

291

Penama

372

197

175

479

266

213

Malampa

496

268

228

533

324

209

Shefa

464

274

190

492

243

249

Tafea

355

200

155

422

266

156

Total

2,166

1,195

971

2,556

1,404

1,152

Urban

286

155

131

406

161

245

Rural

1,880

1,040

840

2,150

1,2483

907

Source: Indicator 9 & 10

The total number of teachers in 1998 is 2556 as compared to 2166 in 1994. The same period saw an increase of 384 extra student enrolment. In the rural areas, the number of teachers rose from 1880 in 1994 to 2150 in 1998 resulting in 1,110 extra teachers. There was a big increase in the number of female teachers from 1994 and 1998 from 971 to 1152. The number of female teachers increased in all the Provinces except the Torba Province. In rural areas the total number of teachers increased by another 270 teachers. Corresponding to student enrolment, Shefa and Malampa Provinces have the highest number of teachers.

6.2.12 Percentage of Primary School Teachers Having the Required Qualification

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

% MF

%M

%F

%MF

%M

%F

Torba

58.3

59.5

57.1

53.8

52.9

55.9

Sanma

60.0

56.6

63.8

55.1

55.7

54.6

Penama

57.5

58.9

56.0

56.6

56.0

57.3

Malampa

54.8

54.9

54.8

56.3

55.2

57.9

Shefa

53.9

51.1

57.9

45.7

57.6

34.1

Tafea

58.6

60.0

56.8

53.6

53.0

54.5

Total

56.8

56.0

57.8

53.5

55.3

51.3

Urban

54.2

54.2

54.2

58.6

55.9

60.4

Rural

57.2

56.3

58.3

52.6

55.3

48.8

Source: Indicator 9 & 10

The total percentage of primary teachers having the required the academic qualification between 1994 and 1998 increased from 54.2% to 58.6%. Except for Malampa Province where the increase was by 1.5%, all the other five Provinces recorded slight decreases. As opposed to the urban area, which saw an increase percentage, the rural area witnessed a decrease from 57.2% to 52.6% for the period 1994 to 1998. Shefa Province experienced a major decrease in percentage of female teachers from 57.9 in 1994 to 34.1 in 1998.

6.2.13 Percentage of Primary School Teachers who are certified According to National Standards

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

% MF

%M

%F

%MF

%M

%F

Torba

41.7

40.5

42.9

46.2

47.1

44.1

Sanma

40.0

43.4

36.2

44.9

44.3

45.4

Penama

42.5

41.1

44.0

43.4

44.0

42.7

Malampa

45.2

45.1

45.2

43.7

44.8

42.1

Shefa

46.1

48.9

42.1

54.3

42.4

65.9

Tafea

41.4

40.0

43.2

46.4

47.0

45.5

Total

43.2

44.0

42.2

46.5

44.7

48.7

Urban

45.8

45.8

45.8

41.4

44.1

39.6

Rural

42.8

43.8

41.7

47.4

44.7

51.2

Source: Indicator 9 & 10

In 1993, the number of certified primary school teachers was 43.2%, which increased to 46.5% by 1998. This showed that the Government was still inadequately resourced with qualified teachers. At the national level, the number of certified female teachers improved remarkably from 42.2% to 48.7%. At the national level, all provinces indicate a low level of certified primary school teachers. All the provinces are under 50% staffed with certified primary school teachers. In rural areas male and female number of teachers increased slightly. Shefa Province recorded an increase from 42.1% to 65.9% of female certified primary teachers. Other Provinces, which showed slight increases, were Tafea, Sanma and Torba.

6.2.14 Trends of the Pupil/Teacher Ratio by Region 1994 and 1998

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

Total Enrolment

Number of Teachers

Pupil/Teacher Ratio

Total Enrolment

No of Teachers

Pupil/Teachers Ratio

Torba

1,175

72

16.3

1,509

48

31.4

Sanma

5,391

407

13.2

6,450

236

27.3

Penama

4,820

372

13.0

5,343

208

25.7

Malampa

6,690

496

13.5

7,096

233

30.4

Shefa

6,976

464

15.0

8,409

267

31.5

Tafea

5,420

355

15.3

5,559

196

28.3

Total

30,472

2,166

14.1

34,366

1,188

28.9

Urban

1,262

155

8.1

6,618

206

12.1

Rural

29,210

2,011

14.5

27,748

982

28.2

Source: Indicator 11

The Government pupil-teacher ratio is 1:30. The overall pupil-teacher ratio in that of other provinces recorded was low in 1994. However, this improved remarkably in all provinces in 1998 when they reached the national target. The pupil-teacher ratio in 1998 for all the Provinces were lower because many new teachers were hired.

6.2.15 Evolution of Number of Repeaters by Geographical Location and by Gender

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

Torba      

89

39

50

Sanma      

700

391

309

Penama      

486

257

225

Malampa      

926

542

384

Shefa      

693

361

332

Tafea      

877

491

386

Total      

3767

2,081

1,686

Urban            

Rural

           

Source: Statistical Indicators, Ministry of Education

6.2.16 Survival Rate to Grade 5

Year

 

1994

   

1998

 
Province

%

MF

%

M

%

F

%

MF

%

M

%

F

Torba

62.9

63.1

63.4

56.8

50.5

63.2

Sanma

58.6

60.2

56.7

71.6

66.6

70.8

Penama

57.1

57.9

56.2

100.5

107.8

92.9

Malampa

127.3

118.7

142.7

61.1

56.9

65.7

Shefa

62.8

65.7

59.6

152.9

145.6

160.7

Tafea

49.9

52.4

44.9

47.4

48.4

46.2

Total

57.9

58.3

57.4

64.6

62.8

66.6

Urban

62.5

57.6

66.3

135.7

171.0

104.6

Rural

56.9

58.3

55.2

74.0

67.4

82.3

Source: Indicator 13 and 14

The survival rate for those entering Grade 1 that reach Grade 5 is 64.6% on average. For the males and females, the survival rate is 62.8% and 66.6% respectively. The survival rate for all the Provinces in 1994 except for Tafea is above 50% with Malampa 129.3%. In 1998, Pemama and Shefa have the highest survival rate of 100.5% and 152.9%. Except for Tafea, all the other provinces recorded over 50% survival rate. The survival rate for the urban area improved remarkably from 62.5% in 1994 to 135.7% in 1998. In the rural areas the survival rate improved from 56.9% in 1994 to 74.0% in 1998. In the rural areas, the survival rate for females improved from 55.2% in 1994 to 82.3% in 1998. In the urban area, female survival rate increased from 66.3% in 1994 to 104.6%.



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