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Figure 6-9

Source: Ministry of Education 1998

6.2.4 Flow rates: participation and retention

6.2.4.1Drop-Out Rates

School drop-out was more of a rural than an urban problem as shown in Tables 6-9a, and 6.9b

Table 6-9a Drop-out rates by Grade, Sex, Rural and Urban, 1991

Drop-out Rate by Grade, Rural/Urban and Sex

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

   

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Zambia Total

3

3

4

6

7

8

  Male

3

3

3

5

6

5

  Female

3

4

5

7

9

10

Rural Total

5

5

7

10

11

11

  Male

5

4

6

8

10

7

  Female

5

6

9

14

12

15

Urban Total

1

1

1

3

5

5

  Male

1

1

1

3

4

3

  Female

1

2

2

3

6

7

Source: Basic Education for some

Table 6-9b Drop-out rates by grade, Sex, Rural and Urban, 1993

 

Dropout Rate by Grade, Rural/Urban and Sex

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

   

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Drop-out

Rate

Zambia Total

3

4

2

5

5

6

  Male

4

4

3

5

5

4

  Female

2

4

2

5

5

7

Rural Total

4

5

3

7

7

8

  Male

5

5

3

7

7

6

  Female

2

6

3

7

6

11

Urban Total

2

1

2

3

3

3

  Male

1

1

2

2

2

3

  Female

2

1

2

3

3

4

Source: Basic Education for some

In 1991 the proportion of children who dropped out in rural areas ranged from 5% in Grade 1 to 11% in Grade 6, and ranged between 4% in grade 1 to 8% in Grade 6 for 1993. Thus there was a decrease in the drop-out rate in 1993. This decrease was, however, reversed in 1996 when the drop-out rate ranged from 4% in Grade 1 to 16% in Grade 6.

Over the period the drop out rate for girls in rural areas was higher than for boys. In 1991 the proportion of girls (for the whole country) dropping out ranged from 3% in Grade 1 to 10% in Grade 6 as compared to 7% in grade 6 in 1993. In 1996 on the other hand, the drop -out rate for girls ranged from 3% in grade 1 to 8% in Grade 6.

These figures show that there was a slight decrease in the drop out for girls in 1993. The net gain in the drop-out was, however, lost in 1996.

The drop-out for urban areas was comparatively lower than for rural areas.

Over the period the drop-out rate for children was higher in the upper grades than lower grades. This problem affected girls more disproportionately than boys and girls in rural areas than urban girls.

The most common reason for the high drop-out rates found by researchers was the rising cost of education. Other reasons include early marriages and pregnancies, harmful traditions and customs and long distances to school.

Figure 6- 10a Reasons For Dropping Out Of School

Figure 6-10a

Source: Ministry of Education 1998

Figure 6-10b

Source: Ministry of Education 1998

Figure 6-10c

Source: Ministry of Education 1998

According to figures 6 – 10a, b, and c, economic factors, standout as the major reason for dropping out of school. Economics factors relate to poverty among households which makes it difficult to meet the cost of education.

One of the reasons accountable for the high dropout rate in the rural areas is long distances from home to school. Long distances to school is a rural phenomenon as shown in Table 6-10. Available research has found that there were places in rural areas where children walked between 16 and 20 kilometers to school. Available evidence in urban areas indicates that most households were within 0 - 5 kilometers radius from schools. On the other hand some households in rural areas lived 6 - 15 kilometers away from schools. In extreme cases some households in rural areas were 16 or more kilometers away from the nearest school.

Table 6-10 Percentage Distribution of Households by Proximity to Primary Schools Zambia and Rural/Urban: 1996

 

0–5 km

6–15 km

16 km+

Number of Households

All Zambia

89

9

1

1,905,000

Rural

83

14

2

1,243,000

Urban

100

661,000

Source: LCMS 1996, Table 14.14

6.2.4.2 Repetition Rates

Tables 6.11, 6.12 and 6.13 show that between 1991 and 1993 repetition rates were relatively stable from grade 1 to grade 6 but increased at grade 7 from 7% in 1991 to 13% in 1993. In 1996, however, repetition rates increased across grades. The repetition rates dropped in 1998.

The repetition rates between grade 1 and 6 were below 5% for 1991 and 1993. The variations were more at the grade 7 level where the repetition level reached 13% for girls and 15% for boys. Repetition at grade 7 occurs because children who did not get selected in grade 8 want to try a second chance.

Table 6-11 Repetition Rates by Grade, Sex, Rural and Urban, 1991

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Residence

Sex

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Repetition

Rate

Zambia

Total

3

3

4

3

2

2

7

  Male

3

3

4

2

2

3

7

  Female

2

3

3

3

3

2

6

Rural

Total

4

3

4

4

1

4

10

  Male

4

4

6

2

2

4

9

  Female

3

3

2

5

1

5

13

Urban

Total

2

3

3

2

3

1

4

 

Male

2

3

2

2

2

2

6

 

Female

2

3

3

2

4

1

3

 

Table 6-12 Repetition Rates by Grade, Sex, Rural and Urban, 1993

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Residence

Sex

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Zambia

Total

3

2

3

4

3

3

13

 

Male

3

3

3

4

3

3

14

 

Female

3

1

3

4

4

3

12

Rural

Total

4

2

4

5

3

3

14

 

Male

3

4

3

5

3

3

15

 

Female

4

1

4

5

3

2

12

Urban

Total

2

2

1

5

4

3

12

 

Male

3

3

2

2

3

3

13

  Female

2

2

1

2

5

3

11

Source: Basic Education for some

Table 6-13: Repetition Rates by Grade and Sex, 1996

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Residence

Sex

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Zambia

Total

3.9

4.3

4.8

6.2

6.5

8.8

16.0

 

Male

4.0

4.4

5.0

6.5

6.6

9.2

16.7

 

Female

3.9

4.2

4.6

5.8

6.3

8.3

15.0

Source: Basic Education for some

Table 6-14: Repetition Rates by Grade and Sex, 1998

   

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Residence

Sex

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Repeat

Rate

Zambia

Total

3.8

3.9

4.1

5.3

5.3

6.7

13.4

 

Male

3.9

4.0

4.1

5.3

5.4

6.8

13.9

 

Female

3.6

3.9

4.0

5.2

5.3

6.5

12.7

Source: Basic Education for some

Figure 6-11

Figure 6-12

Figure 6-13

 

Figure 6-14

6.2.4.3 Progression Rates

The observable trend in progression rates since 1990 was the disparity between urban and rural areas. In rural areas, the progression rate averaged 85% and while in urban areas it averaged 92%.

In rural areas, girls faired slightly lower in progression rate compared to boys. For example the progression rate for Grade 4 – 5 was 85% for girls compared to 88% for boys.

The experience for the whole period in rural areas was that progression rates for girls were lower than for boys. This implies that fewer girls than boys progress to the final grade of primary schooling.


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