The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Zambia
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



6.3 Education for Better Living

Education for Better Living refers to all education channels, the mass media and other forms of

modern and traditional communication for transmission of knowledge, values and skills for

better living and sound sustainable development

The performance of this aspect was as follows:

6.5 Training in Essential Skills

The goal in the area of essential skills was to expand training provisions in essential skills required by youths and adults. Progress towards this goal was undertaken through various NGOs and government ministries. Under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training the targeted population for the skills training under the Department of DTEVT were out-of-school Youths Grade 9 drop-outs and Grade 12 school leavers.

Training programmes for these groups were undertaken at Trades Training Institutes. Although there were institutions; 9 of them located in urban areas and 3 in rural areas.

Towards the end of the decade the department (Technical Education and Vocation and Entrepreneurship Training) formulated a policy which incorporated entrepreneural skills directed at the informal sector.

The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services provided essential skills training in the following areas:

The target population for the training were:

The Ministry of Sport, Youth and Child Development has provided training in agriculture, carpentry, tailoring, plumbing and others. The target population was female and out-of-school youths aged between 15 and 24 years.

Altogether there were 14 training centres under the Ministry. Over the decade the Ministry formulated a youth policy on out-of - school youths.

The Department for Continuing Education in the Ministry of Education provided training in carpentry, agriculture and vocational skills at 24 skills training centres. The target population was out-of-school youths and adults.

A number of NGOs were involved in the provision of essential skills training for women, out-of-school youths, street children, orphans and other disadvantaged groups.

There was no clearly articulated strategy for realisation of the goal for essential skills training. Over the decade a number of efforts were made by a number of government ministries and NGOs to provide training in essential skills. These efforts remained isolated and unco-ordinated.

6.4 Literacy

The goal of enrolling 11-15 year olds of the out-of-school children in literacy classes was not deliberately addressed by the Ministry of Community Development. Instead literacy training was provided for this group by the Department for Continuing Education in the Ministry of Education. It was provided through open learning centres and the National Correspondence College. The Ministry of Sport Youth and Child Development expressed interest in introducing functional literacy for the out-of-school youths but did not do anything. NGOs were also involved.

Altogether 46,000 youths and adults were catered for by the open learning centres and distance education over the 1990 – 1999 period.

Table 6-28 Enrolments in the national literacy campaign 1992-1998

  1992

 

1993

 

1994

 

1995

 

1996 1997

 

1998

 

MF 15,514 10,444 9,956 10,330 16,188 16.523 19468
F 11,514 7,434 7,084 6,584 11,610 12,158 15660
M 4,278 3,010 2,872 3,746 4,578 4,365 3808
F/M 1:2.7 1:2.5 1:2.4 1:1.8 1:2.5 1:2.8 1:4.5

 

Figure 6-29

Highest enrolment figures in the national literacy campaign were recorded between 1996 and 1998. High levels of participation were recorded in rural areas because most of the efforts were directed at reaching rural women among whom levels of illiteracy were higher than any other group. The gender participation ratio was 1:2 in favour of women. Figure 6-11 shows the gender disparity in enrollments in literacy classes between men and women. More women were enrolled in literacy classes than men.

Participation of local government institutions in the provision of literacy was minimal and restricted to basic literacy. During the 1990- 1998 period few municipalities and city councils provided basic literacy. The capital city of Lusaka had a full time staff of 18 community development assistants who organised classes for literacy with enrolment of 2,000 participants who included both men and women.

Participation in the provision of literacy by NGOs and the private sector was limited but showed a trend to increased provision particularly in the second half of the decade. UNESCO sourced funding from the Korean Fund in Trust and the Arab Gulf Fund to carry out a needs assessment and produce instructional materials.

Table 6-29 Literacy Rates by sex and age group, (1990-1996)

Age

Group

1990 Literacy Rates

1996 Literacy Rates

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

15-24

15 & over

69.4

63.4

62.8

46.7

65.9

54.8

79.6

76.1

73.6

59.9

76.5

67.8

 

Figure 6-30

Table 6-30 Literacy Rates by Provinces and age group, (1990-1996)

Province

1990

1996

15-24

15+

15-24

15+

Copperbelt

Central

Lusaka

Southern

Luapula

Northern

Eastern

N/Western

Western

82.1

65.3

78.9

67.2

58.7

75.2

45.4

54.1

58.0

72.9

54.7

72.0

55.9

47.9

46.2

34.9

38.4

55.7

90.1

79.7

89.5

76.7

70.1

70.0

53.5

62.8

71.2

83.7

69.9

85.5

65.9

62.9

60.6

45.7

52.0

56.6

Zambia

Rural

Urban

65.9

53.6

82.6

54.8

41.5

75.0

76.5

66.3

91.6

67.8

56.2

86.8

 

Figure 6-31

The data on literacy point to the following trends:

  1. There were some gaps in literacy levels between males and females in certain provinces. Eastern province only registered a female literacy level of 34.7% The other provinces with low female literacy levels were North-western (43.5%), Western (49.3%) and Northern (49.9%)..
  2. Literacy level in age group 15 –24 years was higher than in the entire adult population. It ranged between 47.8% in the Eastern province and 89.9% in Lusaka.
  3. National literacy rates increased from 54.7% to 67.8%
  4. Female literacy was higher in the age group 15 – 24 years and lower in the 25 and above age group.
  5. Rural illiteracy was 50% of the rural population aged 15 years and above. This was an improvement over1990 levels of 62.1%.
  6. Urban illiteracy of 16.9% in 1996 was a marked improvement above that of 1990 which was 31.5%. Thus illiteracy is more of a rural than urban problem and female than male problem.

Government funding to literacy increased minimally from K900,000 in 1990 to K1,000,000 in 1991 and then rose to K206,000,000 in 1997 . In 1997 it slumped to K100 million the level at which it has remained.

Table 6-31 Government Funding to Literacy 1990 - 1998

Year

Amount in Kwacha

1990

900,000

1991

1,000,000

1992

56,000,000

1993

130,000,000

1994

123,000,000

1995

117,000,000

1996

111,000,000

1997

206,065,000

1998

100,000,000

1999

100,000,000

7 0Effectiveness of EFA the Strategy, Plan and Programmes

The general strategy adopted for EFA in Zambia was that of partnership among various agencies, institutions, communities and individuals. The EFA Task Force was expected to be the co-ordinating body of the plans and programmes. However, the dissolution EFA Task Force in 1993 affected the EFA plans and activities in the country. Since then there has not been a national torch bearer of the EFA vision in the country. All the activities related to EFA have been undertaken by the individual agencies as earlier stated.

    1. ECCED
    2. The policy was not clear on who should do what in the area of ECCED in relation to monitoring standards and encouraging the establishment of ECCED centres The Ministry of Education did not have a structure to support the growth of ECCED

One major disadvantage was that little was done in letting children from disadvantaged groups gain access to pre-school education. Children from better off families benefited more.

Major developments made in advocacy for child survival care, protection and development were that the Department of Child Affairs in conjunction with Ministry of Health the Child-to-Child programme in schools and NGOs mounted national campaigns for the immunisation of children, and community sensitisation on the general health of children. These efforts have been frusted by high levels of child malnutrition and mortality.

7.2 Primary Education

The strategy in primary education centred on expansion of educational opportunities through decentralisation of the system of education and partnership in education provision. Some progress was made in the direction of decentralisation of the system through establishment of the Education Management Boards. This strategy is still being pursued as evident from the Ministry of Education’s policy on BESSIP. There has been significant development towards partnership in primary education provision, communities, for example, own and run their own schools. The number of schools owned by private individuals have increased since 1990.

Expansion in primary school places was however rather low. The average expansion in school places by 10,000 annually was far below the target of 120,000 school places per year.

The major observable achievements in primary education were:-

BOX 4

INNOVATIONS AND GOOD PRACTICES THAT EMERGED IN PRIMARY EDUCATION SINCE 1990:

    1. Multigrade schools which were aimed at extending full primary education to children in sparsely populated areas through a system of multigrade teaching
    2. Community schools initiated by communities to meet the educational needs of their children most of whom were excluded from formal system
    3. Reading literacy program (the Moltino project) aimed at enhancing literacy through the mother tongue among primary school children
    4. Liberal approach to school uniforms which makes wearing of school uniforms not mandatory thereby cutting on the cost of education to the family
    5. Bursary schemes for needy children
    6. Teacher Improvement through INSET activities in the District Resource Centers
    7. Liberal book policy which opened up the supply of education materials to market forces
    8. Affirmative activities in support of girls education through PAGE
    9. Establishment of Education Management Boards to realize the decentralisation process
    10. Community participation in school rehabilitation and construction through Micro-projects funding
    11. Liberal approach to the education opportunities of girls who get pregnant by allowing to return to school after delivery.

 

7.3 Literacy

The strategies that were adopted for adult literacy were:-

These strategies were inadequate given the high levels of illiteracy especially among women. To address this inadequacy, the National Literacy campaign was adopted. This campaign lasted from 1991 to 1994.

The principle achievements were:-

7.4 Education for Better Living

Education for better living was not an isolated theme to be pursued separately. Though there were no goals and targets set in EFA for education for better living, government recognissed the importance of theatre, drama art, educational radio, television broadcasts, newspapers and magazines as channels for delivery of education for better living. In this regard, the government committed itself to improving the provision of facilities and resources.

In the first half of the decade, educational media did not play on effective role in the promotion of the EFA strategy, goals and programmes because EFA was not properly articulated within the context of media utilization in education. From 1996 some of goals related to EFA were achieved through television.

The key forms of communication (television, radio and drama) were effectively used to create public awareness on some of the problems that required nation wide attention (e.g. polio campaign, cholera campaign, anti AIDS and anti-measles). They were used as channels for communicating essential messages that would make the public aware.

The progress achieved in Education for Better Living was facilitated by the overall policy of liberalisation of both print and electronic. Main achievements were:-

7.5 Training for Essential Skills:

Notable achievements in this area were:

8.0 MAIN PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED

8.1 ECCED

8.2 Primary Education

8.3 Adult Literacy

8.4 Training in Essential Skillls

9.0 PUBLIC AWARENESS, POLITICAL WILL AND NATIONAL CAPACITIES.

9.1 ECCED

In general, there was public awareness of nutrition and health related issues that were key to the development of children. This awareness was usually heightened during the national campaigns. However, public awareness of the value of pre-school education was principally limited to urban areas.

Political will to develop ECCED programmes was there as exemplified by policy pronouncements by the different ministries and support for child survival and protection campaigns. The capacity to match political will was low because of lack of financial resources.

9.2 Primary Education

In general, the will to educate children was high among all the stakeholders in the country. The political will was also fairly high. One noticeable weakness, however, of the educational development was lack of linkage to the democratisation process.Lack of co-ordination and collaboration among all the agencies resulted in isolated initiatives which did not contribute to a national sense for EFA.

Adult Literacy

Public awareness of value of literacy in development was low. Political will towards eradicating illiteracy declined over the decade.In relation to the problem of illiteracy especially among women, the gains were low:.

10. General Assessment of Progress

The national momentum for Education for All created at the beginning of the decade was overtaken by the country’s efforts to tackle the challenges which came with the change of government. However, clear policies with a bearing on EFA began to emerge in the Ministries of Education, Ministry of Community Development and Social Services, Sport, Youth and Child Development and the Science, Technology, and Vocational Training after the middle of the decade. In general the new policies complemented and strengthened the EFA goals established earlier in the decade. On the whole, Zzmbia has made some progress towards EFA but it has not achieved all its goals and targets. Some of the progress made include:

    1. More partnership through involvement of communities, NGOs, the Private sector and individuals in educational provision;
    2. National education campaigns for the education of girls through the Program for the Advancement of Girls’ Education (PAGE);
    3. Increased utilisation of public and private media for raising public awareness to national problems like health epidemics and
    4. Greater utilisation of research on critical problems relevant to EFA like the education of girls and other disadvantaged groups;
    5. Improvements in access to basic education opportunities;
    6. Visible reductions in gender and region disparities in basic education opportunities.


Previous Page Next Page