| The EFA 2000
Assessment: Country Reports
- General Observation
Education for All is a broad concept which encompasses educational
activities and programmes being undertaken by the government, communities, NGOs, private
sector and other partners. As a concept, EFA affords the country an opportunity to take
stock of all education initiatives directed at all strata of society.The cutting edge of
Education for All in the country should be linked to the broader democratisation process
the country is going through. In this way citizens will take education as a topic for
discourse and for their own development.
In terms of the future, the countrys EFA programmes should
encompass the nine years Basic Education, Early Childhood Care Education and Development,
Adult Literacy, Learning Achievement, Training in Essential Skills and Education for
Better Living. Efforts should be made to revisit the goals and strategies in these and
other emerging relevant areas.
Areas related to teaching, and quality control should go to the
Ministry of Education. Areas related to child care, survival and protection should go to
Councils and relevant departments of the Ministry of Community Development and Child
Services, Ministry of Sport, Youth and Social Development and the Ministry of Health.
Efforts should be made to establish closer co-operation among the key Ministries in the
area of ECCED especially in terms of data on services available to children.
- The Ministry of Education should take the role of licencing early childhood learning
- There is need to include rural areas in plans to expand ECCED.
11.3 BASIC Education
The problems in the primary education sector experienced over the
decade have been addressed in the Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme (BESSIP)
of the Ministry of Education. BESSIP has identified goals and strategies that are relevant
to universalisation of quality basic education in the country.
Communities, cooperating partners, NGOs and citizens at large should support the goals
and objectives of BESSIP which are:-
- To expand access at Grades 1-7 and reverse the decline in enrollment in order to achieve
100% net enrollment by the year 2005.
- To continue to improve access to and quality of Upper Basic (grades8 9) to
achieve 100% enrollment by 2015.
- To provide a wide rage of learning opportunities in order to broaden access to
- To enhance the quality and relevance of Basic Education by improving pre-service and
in-service teacher education and reviewing curriculum empower children with literacy,
numeracy, life skills and attributes that will enable them to participate fully in
personal, community and national development, as well as effectively manage the challenges
- To improve the supply of Educational materials, and in particular to attain a
pupil/textbook ration of 2:1 by the year 2005.
- To provide training opportunities for effective teaching and management of the new
- To provide sufficient infrastructure and school furniture to accommodate enrollment
- To eliminate imbalances by achieving parity in gender and urban/rural enrollments and
ensuring enrollment of the vulnerable and children with special needs.
- To improve the nutrition and health status of Basic Education pupils
- To provide an enabling institutional framework for efficient and effective management of
education at all levels.
- To create accountable and transparent systems for financial management and procurement
- To create comprehensive and responsive management information systems for informed
- Financial support to community schools
In the course of implementing BESSIP special attention should be given
to relieving the poor of the burden of user-fees and cost sharing measures by making
education free of direct cost for them. Efforts should be made to ensure more
participation of teachers and communities in education decisions that affect them.
11.4 Adult Literacy
- In order to establish levels of literacy, funds should be made available to the Central
Statistical Office to carry out a comprehensive national literacy survey among those 15
- The Ministry of Community Development should prepare a directory of NGOs involved in the
promotion of literacy activities in the country.
- The Ministry of Community Development should initiate the establishment of a central
co-ordinating body for literacy activities comprising key stakeholders (Ministry &
- The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services should promote integration of
literacy instruction in government programmes related to agriculture, health and education
for better living.
- The Ministry of Community Development in collaboration with the Department of Adult
Education at the University of Zambia ,should establish nine literacy centres (1 in every
province) for the production of materials, training of instructors and provision of short
courses aimed at sustaining literacy skills among neoliterates and promoting income
generating activities among women.
- The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services should identify and focus on
reducing illiteracy among districts with less than 50% literacy rates to 25% by
concentrating primarily on female literacy programmes.
- The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services should set up rural libraries
along side literacy centres aimed at promoting a reading culture.
- The Ministry of Community Development should upgrade the padagogic skills for 344
literacy cadres through provision of a graded training training programme offered through
in-service and distance education.
- The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services should establish a data bank
11.5 Education For Better Living
- In line with EFA goals, the Ministry of Broadcasting and Information should clearly
articulate the goals and strategies for EFA.
- The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting services should play a co-ordinating role
for Education for Better Living.
11.6 Training for Essential Skills
- In line with EFA goals, TEVETA should clearly articulate the goals and strategies for
- TEVETA should play a co-ordinating role for training in essential skills.
In order to keep the EFA torch burning there is need to revisit the EFA
goals, targets and strategies for the future The vision should be informed by the
democratisation process and the development needs of the country.
- The EFA task force should be revitalised and an EFA secretariat co-ordinated by the
Director of Planning working with key stakeholders should be established.
- Concerted efforts should be made to support the Jubilee 2000 campaign for debt
cancellation and a large part of the savings arising from the cancellation should go to
- There is need for capacity building in data collection, analysis and utilisation in all
the units concerned with EFA
- Efforts should be made to sustain the achievements realised so far in all the EFA
initiatives including advancing the innovations which have been developed over the decade.
- EFA assessment should be an ongoing exercise to provide indicators of the developments
taking place in education and the constraints that stand in the way of effective progress
towards set goals and targets.