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   Tanzania (Zanzibar)
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7.2.3.1.2 (a) Comparison of the average annual growth rates of total enrolment (GER) and that of the school age population for primary education level

 

1990– 1992

1993– 1997

Pop. 6-13 Years

Enrolment (%)

Pop. 7-13 Years

Enrolment (%)

MF

M

F

 

2.23

1.77

2.73

 

3.44

2.85

4.06

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The annual growth rate is presented at two different period; namely before and the change of official primary school age. The table shows that the annual growth rate has increased from 2.23% in 1990-1992 to 3.44% in 1993-1997; with girl’s annual growth rate being higher than the average annual growth rate.

7.2.3.1.2.(b) Comparison of the average annual growth rates of total enrolment (GER) and that of the school age population for basic education level

 

1990– 1992

1993– 1997

Pop. 6-16 Years

Enrolment (%)

Pop. 7-16 Years

Enrolment (%)

MF

M

F

 

3.35

2.77

3.96

 

5.06

4.49

5.57

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

At basic education level, the annual growth rate has increased from 3.35% between 1990-1992 to 5.06% in the period of 1993-1997. Like at primary education level, the annual growth rates of girls being higher than of boys.

7.2.3.2(a) Trend in gross enrolment ratio (GER) at primary education level 1990- 1999

Year/

Sex

1990*

1991*

1992*

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

MF

65.7

64.7

65.0

68.0

80.5

80.5

81.2

81.2

82.2

85.4

M

67.4

66.5

66.8

70.3

83.3

82.1

82.2

81.9

83.5

87.1

F

63.9

62.8

63.1

65.7

77.7

78.9

80.2

80.5

80.8

83.6

F/M

0.95

0.94

0.94

0.93

0.93

0.96

0.98

0.98

0.97

0.96

Official age range for primary education was 6- 13 years.

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The GER at primary education level has been fluctuating. Between 1990 and 1991 the GER has decreased from 65.7% to 64.7% before gradual increase between 1992 to 1994. The gender parity index shows a gender gap i in favour of boys.. For instance, In 1990, the gender parity in favour of boys was 0.95 and declined to 0.96 in 1999.

7.2.3.2(b) Trends in gross enrolment ratio (GER) at basic education level. 1990-1999

Year/

Sex

1990*

1991*

1992*

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

MF

59.6

59.5

57.9

63.2

67.7

68.8

69.3

71.4

73.2

75.7

M

60.9

60.7

59.0

64.7

69.7

70.2

70.2

72.3

74.8

77.3

F

58.3

58.2

56.8

61.7

65.7

67.4

68.4

70.6

71.6

74.2

F/M

0.96

0.96

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.96

0.96

At basic education level, the gross enrolment ratio has declined between 1990 and 1992. However, the average GER has shown a gradual increase from 1993 to 1999. The gender gap in GER has remain almost constant in favour of boys with the gender parity remain at constant at 0.96 between 1990 to 1999.

7.2.3.3.Trends in enrolment by district

7.2.3.3.1(a)Trends in enrolment at primary education by district and Gender. (1990 – 1999)

 

Year/

Districts

1990

1999

Annual Increase

ENROLMENTS

ENROLMENTS

MF

F

%F

MF

F

%F

MF

M

F

Urban

25,320

13,180

52.1

28,899

14,821

51.3

1.5

1.7

1.3

West

13,977

7090

50.7

23,224

11,721

50.5

5.8

5.9

5.7

North ‘A’

7395

3105

42.0

13,964

6619

47.4

7.3

6.2

8.8

North ‘B’

5039

2392

47.5

7599

3656

48.1

4.7

4.5

4.8

Central

8401

4130

49.2

12,337

5833

47.3

4.4

4.8

3.9

South

5536

2757

49.8

6548

3150

48.1

1.9

2.3

1.5

Micheweni

5421

2160

39.8

9682

4447

45.9

6.7

5.4

8.4

Wete

11,451

5081

44.4

16,070

7711

48.0

3.8

3.1

4.7

Chake-Chake

9087

4356

47.9

14,289

6885

48.2

5.2

5.1

5.2

Mkoani

10,218

4647

45.5

14,079

6743

47.9

3.6

3.1

4.2

ZANZIBAR

101,845

48,898

48.0

146,691

71,586

48.8

4.1

4.0

4.3

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

Variation in enrolment and annual growth is noticeable across the districts, with four districts attaining annual growth below the national average. These districts are Urban, South, Wete and Mkoani. However, the annual growth of Urban districts might be higher than the national average if you put into account that many pupils enrol in 5 primary schools of the West districts are living in Urban districts. Only 3 districts (Urban, West, and Mkoani) recorded below average growth rate of female enrollment. Urban and West districts are the only districts with the highest higher girl’s enrolment than that of boys while Micheweni districts has the lowest girl’s enrolment. Overall percentage enrolment of girls has increased from 48% in 1990 to 48.8% in 1999.

7.2.3.3.1(b) Trend in enrolment at basic education level by district and gender 1990– 1999.

 

Year/

Districts

1990

1999

Annual Increase

ENROLMENTS

ENROLMENTS

MF

F

%F

MF

F

%F

MF

M

F

Urban

31,163

16,479

52.9

37339

19140

51.3

2.0

2.4

1.7

West

15,134

7658

50.6

28110

14280

50.8

7.1

7.1

7.2

North ‘A’

8312

3485

41.9

16212

7760

47.9

7.7

6.4

9.3

North ‘B’

5552

2638

47.5

9019

4382

48.6

5.5

5.3

5.8

Central

9449

4618

48.9

14793

6985

47.2

5.1

5.5

4.7

South

6418

3153

49.1

8116

3905

48.1

2.6

2.9

2.4

Micheweni

5876

2339

39.8

11057

5004

45.3

7.3

6.2

8.8

Wete

13,052

5859

44.9

19578

9337

47.7

4.6

4.0

5.3

Chake-Chake

10,292

4994

48.5

16905

8171

48.3

5.7

5.7

5.6

Mkoani

11,477

5272

45.9

17156

8251

48.1

4.6

4.1

5.1

ZANZIBAR

116,725

56,495

48.4

178285

87215

48.9

4.8

4.7

4.9

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

Similar trend is noticeable in basic education level with regards to annual growth rate. Four districts, namely Urban, South, Wete and Mkoani have annual growth rate below the national average. Also Urban and West districts have the highest enrolment of girls than that of boys while Micheweni remains the least in girls enrolment. With regards to girl’s annual growth rate only Urban, Central and South districts are below the national average.

7.2.3.3.2.(a) Trends in enrolment at primary education level by district and type of institution 1990- 1999.

Year/

Enrolment/

District

1994

1999

Annual Growth Rate

ENROLMENT

ENROLMENT

Pub. + Priv.

% Private.

Pub. + Priv.

% Priv.

Pub+ Priv.

 

Private.

Urban

26601

0.13

28899

4.00

1.67

99.01

West

17851

1.41

23224

4.93

5.40

35.51

North ‘A’

10158

-

13964

-

6.57

-

North ‘B’

6018

-

7599

-

4.77

-

Central

10199

-

12337

-

3.87

-

South

5799

-

6548

-

2.46

-

Micheweni

6857

-

9682

-

7.14

-

Wete

13016

-

16070

-

4.30

-

Chake

10957

-

14289

0.05

5.45

-

Mkoani

11818

-

14079

-

3.56

-

ZANZIBAR

119274

0.24

146691

1.57

4.22

51.65

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

Looking at the enrolment and annual growth rate at primary education level between public and private schools in 1994-1999 period, Micheweni district has the highest annual growth rate of 7.14 while Urban with the least annual growth rate of 1.67%. Private schools that were introduced in 1994 have attained an annual growth rate of 51.65%, with the Urban and West districts with the highest annual growth rate of private schools.

7.2.3.3.2(b) Trend in enrolment by district and type of institution at basic education level 1990- 1999

Year/

Enrolment/

District

1994

1999

Annual Growth Rate

ENROLMENT

ENROLMENT

Public+ Priv.

% Priv.

Public + Priv.

% Priv.

Pub.+ Priv.

 

Priv.

Urban

33029

0.11

37339

3.20

2.48

100.33.

West

19895

4.75

28110

5.73

7.16

11.24

North ‘A’

11158

-

16212

-

7.76

-

North ‘B’

6851

-

9019

-

5.65

-

Central

11333

-

14793

-

5.47

-

South

6647

-

8116

-

4.07

-

Micheweni

7364

0.71

11057

0.30

8.47

-8.69

Wete

15062

-

17673

-

5.38

-

Chake

12407

-

14833

0.00

6.38

0.0

Mkoani

13560

-

16135

-

4.82

-

ZANZIBAR

137306

0.75

167122

1.8

5.36

22.44

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

In examining the trend in growth of enrolment at basic education level, it depicts almost the same trend as in primary education trend. Urban district due to the same reasons as in primary education level has the least annual growth rate (2.48%) and followed by the South district (4.0%). With regards to private schools at this level the average annual growth in enrolment is 22.44% with the highest enrolment in Urban and West districts. In contrast, the annual growth rate in enrolment in private schools in Micheweni district has declined by –8.69%. This is due to the decrease of students joining Dodeani technical school.

7.2.3.4(a) Evolution of GER at primary education level by district and gender (1990– 1999)

 

Year/

District

1990

Parity

Index

1999

Parity

Index

GER

GER

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Urban

76.6

78.4

75.1

0.96

71.2

72.2

70.4

0.98

West

152.4

151.0

153.7

1.02

186.9

183.6

190.4

1.04

North ‘A’

47.0

52.4

41.1

0.78

87.7

94.5

81.3

0.86

North ‘B’

55.4

57.6

53.2

0.92

72.7

72.7

72.5

0.99

Central

88.0

85.7

90.5

1.06

97.7

98.1

97.2

0.99

South

69.2

68.9

69.4

1.01

89.5

92.7

86.4

0.93

Micheweni

35.0

41.1

28.4

0.69

61.1

64.8

57.3

0.88

Wete

55.4

59.2

51.3

0.87

74.3

74.3

74.3

1.00

Chake

55.0

55.1

54.8

0.99

83.6

86.6

80.6

0.93

Mkoani

57.7

59.5

55.6

0.93

78.4

80.9

75.8

0.94

ZANZIBAR

65.7

67.4

63.9

0.95

83.4

87.1

83.6

0.96

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The gross enrolment ratio (GER) for primary education varies considerably from one district to another. The ratio is highest in West district with averages of 152.4% and 186.9% in 1990 and 1999 respectively. However, six schools in west districts which lies along the border with Urban districts enroll most of its pupils from Urban districts. Micheweni is the district with the lowest GER of 35.0% in 1990 and 61.1% in 1999. While girl’s GER is higher than that of boys in West district, the gender parity in GER has been attained in Wete district in 1999, while GER in the remaining districts is in favour of boys. The gender gap in GER is pronounced in North ‘A’ and Micheweni districts.

7.2.3.4.(b) Evolution of GER at basic education level by district and gender 1990-1999.

 

Year/

District

1990

Parity

Index

1999

Parity

Index

GER

GER

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Urban

72.7

73.5

72.1

0.98

64.7

65.8

63.8

0.97

West

122.9

116.6

129.9

1.11

156.6

154.9

158.3

1.02

North ‘A’

43.1

48.6

37.2

0.77

76.7

82.3

71.4

0.87

North ‘B’

48.1

49.2

47.9

0.97

64.5

64.7

64.3

0.99

Central

77.9

75.7

80.2

1.06

84.8

85.8

83.7

0.98

South

64.8

65.2

64.4

0.99

80.9

83.6

78.2

0.94

Micheweni

30.9

36.6

25.1

0.69

53.6

56.9

50.0

0.89

Wete

50.8

54.2

47.1

0.87

67.2

67.4

67.0

0.99

Chake

48.9

49.9

47.8

0.96

75.7

77.3

74.2

0.96

Mkoani

52.1

53.3

50.9

0.95

70.4

72.7

68.0

0.94

ZANZIBAR

59.6

60.9

58.3

0.96

75.7

77.3

74.2

0.96

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

District variation in GER at basic education level is noticeable. Like at primary education level, West district has the highest average GER of 122.9% and 156.6% in 1990 and 1999 respectively and Micheweni district with the lowest average GER of 30.9% and 53.6%in the same period. There has been a very small gap between male and female ratios. Girl’s GER is higher than of boys in West district in both 1990 and 1999.In contrast, Micheweni has the lowest GER of girl’s in 1990 and 1999.

7.2.3.5Education for under privilege children

          1. Girl-Child Education

According to the 1999 figures, the GER for girls at primary and basic education level are 83.6 % and 74.2 % at national level respectively which depicts minor disparities in favour of boys. However, the proportion of girl’s decreases as one move at post basic education levels. Further examination of girl’s enrolment across the district depicts a significant disparity with Micheweni and North "B" districts with the lowest girl’s enrolment. In addressing gender imbalances the Ministry of Education has taken several steps. Among them are as follow:

Children with Disabilities

Children with disabilities have limited access to basic education. At a pre-school level, disabled children are not enrolled at all because special education is not mainstreamed in the pre-school curriculum. At basic education level only 88 disabled children are in school. A recent survey carried by the Zanzibar Association of the Disable in collaboration with MOE in South and Mkoani districts revealed the existence of 1300 school age children with different type of disabilities in two districts. If the situation is generalised for all the ten districts of Zanzibar, then the number of children with disabilities who missed schooling might be very big.

The main problems hindering provision of education to disable children are as follow:


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