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   Tanzania (Zanzibar)
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7.2.4 Net enrolment Ratio (NER)

7.2.4.1 (a) Evolution of NER by gender at primary education level 1990– 1997

Year/

Sex

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

MF

50.9

49.3

49.8

50.7

59.3

65.4

65.9

67.0

M

51.9

50.1

51.2

51.5

59.5

65.8

65.9

67.3

F

50.0

48.6

48.4

49.9

59.1

64.9

65.9

66.7

F/M

0.96

0.97

0.94

0.96

0.98

0.98

1.0

0.99

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The net enrolment ratio (NER) at primary education level for both male and female has shown a descending or rather leeward trend in 1990 to 1992. From 1993 the average NER has increased from 50.7% to 67.0% in 1997. The NER for boys and girl’s shows minor disparities in favour of boys with parity index of 0.99

7.2.4.1.(b) Evolution of NER at basic education level by gender 1990– 1997

Year/

Sex

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

MF

43.4

42.3

41.0

45.1

47.9

52.6

53.2

54.7

M

43.6

42.3

42.0

45.3

47.6

52.8

52.9

54.6

F

43.1

42.3

40.1

44.9

48.0

52.5

53.5

54.8

F/M

0.98

1.0

0.95

0.99

1.0

0.99

1.01

1.00

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

Like at primary education level, the net enrolment ratio (NER) at basic education level for both sexes has declined between 1990 and 1992. The average NER has increased from 45.1% in 1993 to 54.7% in 1997. At this level the gender parity has been attained in most of the years.

7.2.4.2 Comparison of the average annual growth rates of the enrolled school-age children and the total school-age population (NER)

 

1990– 1992

1993– 1997

Pop. 6-13 Years

Enrolment 6-13 Years. %

Pop. 7-13 Years

Enrolment 7-13 Years. %

MF

M

F

 

1.62

1.58

1.67

 

6.14

5.88

6.40

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

he annual growth rate of enrolment at an official age shows a significant period between the two periods. In 1990-1992, when the official age for primary education was 6-13 years the annual growth was low at 1.62, while between 1993-1997 when the official age was changed to 7-13 a significant increase was attained; with girl’s annual growth being higher than that of boys.

7.2.4.3 (a) Evolution of NER at primary education level by district and gender 1990– 1997

 

Year/

District

1990

1997*

NET ENROLMENT RATIO

Parity

Index

NET ENROLMENT RATIO

Parity

Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Urban

57.5

57.8

57.3

0.99

56.3

55.7

56.8

1.01

West

116.4

112.2

120.7

1.07

148.1

143.0

153.3

1.07

North ‘A’

42.3

46.9

37.2

0.79

66.8

72.5

61.4

0.84

North ‘B’

42.3

44.1

40.4

0.91

57.1

56.0

58.3

1.04

Central

65.2

62.2

68.5

1.10

77.9

75.6

80.5

1.06

South

51.7

50.8

52.6

1.03

71.6

72.4

70.8

0.97

Micheweni

27.9

32.6

23.0

0.70

47.9

50.0

45.7

0.91

Wete

44.6

46.9

42.0

0.;89

61.2

60.5

62.0

1.02

Chake

40.6

40.9

40.2

0.98

59.9

61.3

58.6

0.95

Mkoani

46.2

47.9

44.3

0.92

61.9

63.9

60.0

0.93

ZANZIBAR

50.9

51.9

50.0

0.96

67.0

67.3

66.7

0.99

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

In general, the national NER has increased from 50.9% in 1990 to 67.0% in 1997. Variation in net enrolment ratio (NER) at primary education level can be observed across districts. West district has NER exceeding 100% due to the fact that it enrolled a number of pupils from Urban districts, while Urban district has NER of 57.5% and 56.3% in 1990 and 1997 respectively. The gender gap in NER has declined with gender parity of 0.96 and 0.99 in 1990 and 1997 respectively. Micheweni district is the only district, which exhibit girl’s NER of below 50% within the same period.

7.2.4.3. (b) Evolution of NER by district and gender at basic education level 1990– 1997.

 

Year/

District

1990

1997*

NET ENROLMENT RATIO

Parity

Index

NET ENROLMENT RATIO

Parity

Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Urban

50.1

49.0

51.0

1.04

46.1

45.2

46.9

1.03

West

89.9

82.3

98.2

1.19

119.0

114.5

123.5

1.07

North ‘A’

36.1

40.2

31.7

0.78

55.2

59.9

50.7

0.84

North ‘B’

34.3

35.1

33.4

0.95

48.2

47.5

48.9

1.02

Central

54.4

51.0

58.1

1.13

61.8

59.2

64.6

1.09

South

45.3

44.0

46.6

1.05

59.3

59.8

58.7

0.98

Micheweni

23.5

27.4

19.4

0.70

38.8

40.3

37.2

0.92

Wete

38.8

40.8

36.7

0.89

49.3

48.8

49.8

1.02

Chake

34.4

35.2

33.6

0.95

46.5

46.9

46.0

0.98

Mkoani

39.4

40.3

38.4

0.95

52.1

53.5

50.7

0.94

ZANZIBAR

43.4

43.6

43.1

0.98

54.7

54.6

54.8

1.00

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

Like at primary education level, NER at basic education level show similar pattern. The national average NER has increased from 43.4% in 1990 to 54.7% in 1997. Also disparities in NER which was minor in favour of boy’s in 1990 has been completely eliminated in 1997. West district has the highest average NER of 89.9% and 119.0% in 1990 and 1997 respectively due to same reasons explained above, whereas Micheweni district has the lowest NER at that period.

7.2.4.4. Age -grade enrolment ratio at primary education for 1997.

 

Std. I

Std. II

Std. III

Std. IV

Std. V

Std. VI

Std. VII

Age

7 Years

8 Years

9 Years

10 Years

11 Years

12 Years

13 Years

MF

19.1

20.4

20.3

14.7

14.9

17.7

22.0

M

10.1

9.9

9.8

7.3

7.0

8.7

10.1

F

9.8

10.5

10.4

7.4

8.0

9.0

11.9

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The age specific enrolment ratio shows that majority of pupils in primary schools are overage. At an average about 20% of primary school pupils are in different primary classes at the right age. Majority of pupils join primary schools at overage due to shortage of space or stay longer in school due repetition. However, the proportion of girls at age specific is higher than that of boys.

7.2.5 Public expenditure on education

7.2.5.1 Trends in public expenditure on education 1990-1998 in Millions T.Shillings.

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990-98

 

GNP

 

17,746.5

 

25,987

 

34,697

 

43,975

 

53,975

 

71,631

 

91,532

 

1095.35

 

127,315

 

27.9 %

GNP/per Capital

26,114

37,127

48,126

59,218

71,404

90,922

112,799

131,054

149,782

24.4%

Development expenditure

69.97

89.95

31.25

16.48

26.95

15.00

10.00

19.00

14.00

-18.2

Recurrent Expenditure On Education

450,00

975.1.00

1,227.89

1,310.94

1,443.89

2,598.56

3,229.78

4,535.78

5,044.87

 

35.3%

Recurrent Expenditure on Basic Education

 

NA

 

383,241,000

 

493.12

 

955.88

 

1,038.67

 

1,935.71

 

2,434.98

 

3,883.3

 

4,338.7

41.4%

Recurrent Expenditure on Basic Education/Pupil

 

NA

 

3,204

 

3,956

 

7,409

 

7,622

 

13,540

 

16,445

 

24,710

 

27,607

36%

Recurrent Expenditure on Basic Education/Expenditure On education

 

NA

 

39.3

 

40.2

 

72.9

 

71.9

 

74.5

 

75.4

 

85.6

 

86.0

11.8%

Recurrent Expenditure on Basic Education/GNP

 

NA

 

1.5

 

1.4

 

2.2

 

1.9

 

2.7

 

2.7

 

3.5

 

3.4

12.4%

Recurrent Expenditure on Basic Education/Pupil/GNP per Capital

 

NA

 

 

8.6

 

8.2

 

12.5

 

10.7

 

14.9

 

14.6

 

18.9

 

17.6

10.8%

NA- Data are not available

From 1990/91 to 1998/99 the education sector has consumed between13.6% and % of the total public recurrent expenditure respectively. The share of education in total expenditure has increased between T Shs.450 million in 1990/91 to over T. Shs. 5 billion in 1998/99. Although, in absolute figures has been a major increased, but the public expenditure as percentage of GDP has declined from 5% in 1990/91 to 3.5% in 1998/99. The expenditure per level has been in favour of basic education sub-sector with increased in the total expenditure from 39.3% in 1991/92 to 86.0% in 1998/99. It should be noted that enrollment in basic education constitute more than 90% of the total enrollment in all levels. After accounting for inflation, devaluation of the Tanzania shillings, and the rising school enrollment the real per capital expenditure on education in dollar terms have decreased. This low level of investment in education has resulted to the deterioration of school infrastructure, inadequate instructional materials and other education support inputs.

7.2.5.2 Evolution of the structure of the public expenditure on basic education.

Structure basic education sub-sector budget 1990-1999 in thousands T.Shillings.

Financial

Year

 

1991

 

1992

 

1993

 

1994

 

1995

 

1996

 

1997

 

1998

 

1991-98

Staff Expenditure

208,455

307,412

922,714

741,015

1,467,642

1,841,586

3,632,209

3,896,346

51.9%

% Staff

54.4

62.3

96.5

71.3

75.8

75.6

93.5

89.8%

 

Non-Staff Expenditure

 

174,786

 

185,714

 

33,171

 

297,657

 

468,074

 

593,394

 

251,168

 

442,364

14.2%

% Non-Staff Expenditure

 

45.6

 

37.7

 

3.5

 

28.7

 

24.2

 

24.4

 

6.5

 

10.2%

 

Total Basic Education Expenditure

383,241

493,126

955,885

1,038,3672

1,935,716

2,434,980

3,883,377

4,338,710

41.4%

Although the basic education sub-sector has received a lion share of education expenditure from 1990/91 to 1998/99, but the increased have been absorbed by teacher’s salaries and allowances. In 1991/92 teachers salaries and allowance accounted for 54.4% of the basic education expenditure where by 1998/99 it has risen to 86.0%. The real expenditures on non-wage items have fallen over the years, with 1993/94 reaching the worst 3.5% before rising again in 1994/95 to 28.7%. Between 1996/97 to 1998/99 non-wage expenditure has declined from 24.4% to 10.2% respectively. Education materials account for less than 1% of recurrent basic education budget, which buys very little in the way of books. On the absent of public expenditure on education materials, parents were obliged to purchase the books and other materials for their children although some of the education materials are procured out of development budget using donors funds.

Like other civil servants, teacher’s salaries have been adjusted whenever the government has the ability to pay more to offset the negative impact of devaluation and increase cost of living. Examination of the average pupil /teacher ratio, it shows that the ratio is 31:1 in 1999 which is quite low. Much saving in teacher salary might be attained by increasing the average pupil/ teacher ratio to 45:1.

7.2.6 TEACHING STAFF

        1. Evolution of teaching staff by district and gender 1990, 1994, 1998.

1990

1994

1998

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

National

3829

2247

1582

4843

2467

2376

5296

2462

2834

Urban

913

255

658

1152

320

832

1202

309

893

West

433

216

217

679

236

443

795

265

530

North ‘A’

254

208

46

332

260

72

404

265

139

North ‘B’

154

92

62

229

118

111

309

126

183

Central

270

225

45

384

279

105

493

270

223

South

233

195

38

249

190

59

264

184

80

Micheweni

206

182

24

275

211

64

268

204

64

Wete

513

324

189

562

326

236

553

312

241

Chake

394

202

192

465

198

267

486

198

288

Mkoani

419

308

111

507

329

178

522

329

193

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The number of teachers has increased from 3829 in 1990 to 5296 in 1998; an increase of about 1467 teachers. The percentage of female teachers has increased from 41.3% in 1990 to 53.5% in 1998, which indicates the preference in joining the teaching profession. Further analysis of female teachers per district indicates that the proportion of female teachers in Urban district has increased slightly from (72%) in 1990 to (74%) in 1998. A significant increased in the proportion of female teachers is noticeable in Central district. Whereas in 1990 female teachers constituted of (16%) of the teaching force has increased to (45%) in 1998. The lowest percentage of female teachers is found in Micheweni district, which is 11% and 23% in 1990 and 1998 respectively.


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