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   Tanzania (Zanzibar)
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7.2.6.2 Percentage of basic education teacher’s having the required academic qualifications.

 

1990

1994

1998

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

National

81.4

80.9

82.2

84.6

85.0

84.2

87.8

88.2

87.5

Urban

88.1

94.0

85.7

91.9

96.6

90.1

94.1

97.7

92.8

West

83.4

90.3

76.5

87.6

90.7

86.0

89.8

89.1

90.2

North ‘A’

79.5

79.3

80.4

81.6

81.9

80.6

89.4

90.6

87.1

North ‘B’

78.6

79.3

77.4

88.2

86.4

90.1

89.0

90.5

88.0

Central

91.1

90.7

93.3

94.8

95.0

94.3

93.5

95.6

91.0

South

84.4

85.1

86.8

89.2

87.4

94.9

95.1

95.1

95.0

Micheweni

63.6

62.1

75.0

62.9

66.4

51.6

69.4

72.1

60.9

Wete

78.6

78.4

78.8

76.7

78.5

74.2

77.8

80.8

73.9

Chake

84.8

85.6

83.9

80.9

85.4

77.5

94.8

90.4

80.9

Mkoani

75.4

76.0

73.9

79.9

80.2

79.2

82.4

81.8

83.4

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The percentage of teachers having required academic qualifications has been gradually increased, although the proportion of the increase has not been remarkable. The percentage of academic qualified teachers has not exceeded 80% throughout the 1990’s because the Ministry has been recruiting unqualified teachers in low awareness areas. Although, female teachers are the majority, but a smaller percentage of female teachers have academic qualification when compare to male. Micheweni district has the lowest percentage of teachers with academic qualification.

7.2.6.3 Percentage of basic education teacher who are certified to teach according to national standards

 

1990

1994

1998

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Zanzibar

70.6

70.4

70.9

1.00

63.0

70.5

55.2

0.78

66.0

75.5

57.7

0.76

Urban

79.0

80.8

78.3

0.96

68.4

76.3

65.4

0.85

74.2

78.3

72.8

0.92

West

73.0

79.2

67.7

0.85

57.8

78.4

46.9

0.59

67.8

81.9

60.8

0.74

North ‘A’

63.8

65.4

56.5

0.86

58.7

63.8

40.3

0.63

52.0

65.7

25.9

0.39

North ‘B’

64.3

64.1

64.5

1.00

55.5

61.0

49.5

0.81

44.0

65.9

29.0

0.44

Central

81.5

81.8

80.0

0.97

65.6

73.8

43.8

0.59

52.7

74.1

26.9

0.36

South

79.4

78.5

84.2

1.07

75.9

80.0

62.7

0.78

84.8

99.5

51.3

0.51

Micheweni

58.3

56.6

70.8

1.25

48.7

55.9

25.0

0.44

57.1

63.7

35.9

0.56

Wete

68.0

68.8

66.7

0.96

63.5

68.7

56.4

0.82

66.5

71.8

59.8

0.83

Chake

66.5

70.8

62.0

0.87

66.7

74.7

60.7

0.81

71.8

82.3

64.6

0.78

Mkoani

64.0

66.2

57.7

0.87

62.5

68.4

51.7

0.75

69.3

73.9

61.7

0.83

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The proportion of teachers being certified to teach has declined from 70.6% in 1990 to 66% in 1998. The proportion of certified male teachers has stagnated at 70% between 1990 and 1994, before increasing to 75.5% in 1998. In contrast the percentage of certified female teachers has declined considerable from 70.9% in 1990 to 57.7% in 1998. Gender parity in certified teachers is widen in favour of male teachers. Further examination of the distribution of certified teachers revealed that there is unequal distribution of certified teachers. According to 1998 figures, only three districts; Chake Chake, South and Urban districts have the proportion of certified teachers above the national average.

7.2.6.3.1 PUPILS TEACHER RATIO

Evolution of the Pupil / Teacher Ratios 1990 –1998

District

1991

1994

1998

Total Enrolment

Number of Teachers

 

PTR

Total Enrolment

Number of Teachers

 

PTR

Total Enrolment

Number of Teachers

 

PTR

Zanzibar

119611

4353

27

136272

4843

28

164133

5296

31

Urban

32176

984

33

32992

1152

29

34325

1202

29

West

15311

464

33

18950

678

28

24779

795

31

North ‘A’

8797

308

29

11158

332

34

15447

404

38

North ‘B’

5739

192

30

6851

229

30

8481

309

27

Central

9464

327

29

11333

384

30

14400

493

29

South

6419

237

27

6647

249

27

7766

264

29

Michew.

6053

283

21

7312

275

27

10321

268

39

Wete

13442

571

24

15062

562

27

17673

553

32

Chake

10475

487

21

12407

465

27

14806

486

30

Mkoani

11735

500

23

13560

507

27

16135

522

31

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The pupil/teacher ratio reflects the situation in both primary and secondary schools. In general, the PTR throughout the 1990’s have remains quite low with insignificant increase. The PTR has increased from27: 1 in 1990 to 31:1 in 1998. A slight variation in PTR is observed across the districts. According to 1998 figures, Micheweni and North "A" districts had the highest PTR of 39:1 and 38:1 respectively, whereas Chake Chake, South, Central, North "B" and Urban districts have PTR below the national average. By examining the average PTR alone, without considering the class size and the teaching load, one can easily make a conclusion that the education system has more teachers than it requires. However on analysing the number of pupils per class, one can observe variation in enrolment across the grades; and hence can be a good determinant of distribution of PTR per grades. Whereas in the lower primary classes PTR seems to be higher due to big class size than in upper primary and junior secondary classes whose class size in most schools is generally small. In most cases, enrolment in lower primary classes exceeds the norm of 40 pupils per class. The PTR at this level can reach 50:1.

7.2.7 INTERNAL EFFICIENCY OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM

7.2.7.1. EVOLUTION OF THE REPETITION RATES

National figures of repetition rates for the years 1990 -1996

Grades

Std.1

Std. 2

Std.3

Std.4

Std.5

Std.6

Std.7

Std.8

Form I

Form II

1990

14.3

12.5

11.9

5.1

3.9

9.2

4.3

4.9

5.0

0.8

1991

10.9

9.8

8.9

4.1

3.6

4.9

4.2

4.6

3.3.

0.8

1992

13.4

12.1

7.2

5.8

5.1

4.5

4.9

8.4

5.9

0.8

1993

14.2

10.4

7.9

6.1

5.4

5.4

7.2

9.1

6.8

0.8

1994

10.3

8.4

6.6

4.3

4.0

5.1

7.2

3.8

7.5

0.8

1995*

11.9

9.5

7.2

6.1

5.6

6.0

9.7

0.0

7.5

0.8

1996

10.8

8.2

6.0

4.3

3.8

4.7

3.2

0.8

5.3

0.7

* Std.8 was phased out in 1994.

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The main reasons for pupil’s repeating classes are examination failures. In general, the repetition rates are higher in the lower primary classes. Standard I have the highest repetition rate in almost all years; with the average repetition rate of 12.3%. The high rate of repetition in standard 1 is the results of many pupils do not have access to pre school education before joining standard 1. It has been found that children with pre-school background can easily adjust with the school environment and hence tend to perform better than those who were not exposed to pre-school environment. Overcrowding in lower primary classes has also been a factor in pupil’s poor performance. In a situation where teachers can not manage overcrowded classes, some pupils, mostly, the slow learners do not get adequate attention from the teachers and will likely perform poorly. The repetition rate declined with pupil’s proceeds to upper classes. Standard 3 and standard 6 common examinations used to be one among the main source for pupils repeating classes, however the examinations were abolished in 1993. The repetition rate at standard 7 has increased from 1993 to 1995. The main reasons being some students are not confident of their ability to attempt a selective examination of joining Form I in bias secondary schools. Hence they prefer to repeat the years for better preparation. The lowest repetition rate is in Form II, where students sit for terminal examinations.

7.2.7.1.1. Average pupil-flows rates (Promotion, repetition and drop-out rates) 1989 and1996

A. Pupil-Flows rates by gender 1989

 

Grade

Std.1

Std.2

Std.3

Std.4

Std.5

Std.6

Std.7

Std.8

Form I

Form II

 

Promotion rates

81.4

81

84.1

87.9

93

73.7

67.7

83.7

79.9

99.4

MF

Repetition rates

13.4

11.1

10.7

5.8

4.9

14.1

4.8

5.5

8.6

0.6

Drop-out rates

5.2

7.8

5.2

6.3

2.1

12..2

27.5

10.7

11.4

0.0

 

M

Promotion rates

80.8

78.9

81.4

87.6

91.0

72.5

68.0

83.1

79.0

99.4

Repetition rates

13.6

12.2

12.4

7.3

5.5

15.2

5.1

6.3

9.0

0.6

Drop-out rates

5.6

8.8

6.2

5.1

3.5

12.3

26.9

10.6

12.1

0.0

 

F

Promotion rates

82.1

83.4

87.3

88.1

95.1

75.0

67.3

84.3

80.9

99.3

Repetition rates

13.2

9.9

8.6

4.3

4.2

12.9

4.5

4.8

8.3

0.7

Drop-out rates

4.7

6.7

4.1

7.6

0.6

12.1

28.1

10.8

10.8

0.0

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

B. Pupil-Flows rates by gender 1996

 

Grade

Std.1

Std.2

Std.3

Std.4

Std.5

Std.6

Std.7

Std.8

Form I

Form II

 

Promotion rates

86.2

89.3

89.2

93.4

91.8

88.4

83.6

99.3

84.8

98.6

MF

Repetition rates

10.8

8.2

6.0

4.3

3.8

4.7

3.2

0.8

5.3

1.4

Drop-out rates

3.1

2.4

4.8

2.3

4.4

6.9

13.2

-0.1

9.9

0.0

 

M

Promotion rates

86.0

87.8

89.4

93.0

91.3

88.4

78.8

103.1

82.5

98.9

Repetition rates

11.9

9.4

7.4

5.6

4.8

6.3

4.5

0.8

6.9

1.1

Drop-out rates

2.2

2.8

3.2

1.4

3.8

5.4

16.7

-3.9

10.7

0.0

 

F

Promotion rates

86.4

90.9

89.1

93.7

92.2

88.4

88.4

95.5

87.3

98.3

Repetition rates

9.6

7.0

4.6

3.0

2.8

3.1

1.9

0.9

3.7

1.7

Drop-out rates

4.0

2.1

6.3

3.3

5.0

8.4

9.7

3.7

9.0

0.0

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

The two tables compare the promotion, repetition and drop outs rates, between the year 1989 and 1996. In general, the tables depicts girls have higher promotion rate than boys in almost all the grades in 1989 and in 1996. Similarly, the repetition rates of girls are lower than that of boys in all the grades in the specified periods. However, the drop out rates for both girls and boys seem to be almost the same.

7.2.7.2 School Survival by Grade 1996/97

Grade

Std. 1

Std.2

Std.3

Std.4

Std.5

Std.6

Std.7

OSC

Form I

Form II

Survival MF

1000

966

940

892

871

831

771

665

666

597

Survival M

1000

975

945

1013

998

958

903

745

774

685

Survival F

1000

956

934

860

831

788

719

648

624

566

 

Grade

Std.1

Std.2

Std.3

Std.4

Std.5

Std.6

Std.7

OSC

FormI

Form II

Survival without repetition

1000

862

770

687

641

589

520

435

432

366

Survival with repetition

0

104

170

205

229

242

251

231

234

300

 

 

Grade 5

MF

M

F

Survival rate

87.1%

99.8 %

83.1%

Number of pupil-years spent

5018

5467

4839

Coefficient of efficiency

82.9 %

87.6 %

81.4 %

Input-output Ratio

1,21

1,16

1,21

 

7.2.7.3 SURVIVAL RATE TO GRADE 5 BY GENDER, 1990 - 1996

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

MF

76.3

69.1

88.0

84.6

79.2

72.8

87.1

M

86.6

80.4

97.3

93.5

124.0

81.9

99.8

F

73.2

69.0

88.2

86.4

83.5

73.8

83.1

Source: Ministry of Education, Zanzibar

From the records, it follows Survival to Grade 5 in the period between 1990 through 1996 varies from the lowest 69.1% in 1991 to the highest 88.0% in 1992. This implies that on the average about 31.9% to 12% of children drop


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