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   Tanzania (Zanzibar)
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From the records, it follows Survival to Grade 5 in the period between 1990 through 1996 varies from the lowest 69.1% in 1991 to the highest 88.0% in 1992. This implies that on the average about 31.9% to 12% of children drop

out for one reason or other per year. This effect may be due to several causes ranging from poverty to truancy. Parents who involve their children to child labour-house keepers, petty business and other activities are directly or indirectly connected to the economic situation of the community at large. The effect is much more severe to girl’s students. This is shown by the fact that the survival rate to grade of female children each year is lower that of boys. This may imply that more girls are involved in economic as well as home activities such as house keeping and baby care.

SURVIVAL RATE TO GRADE 5 BY GENDER

From the data the survival rate to grade 10 in the years 1990 through 1996 ranges from the lowest 20.8% in 1991 to the highest 59.7% in 1996. On the average dropout rates range from 79.2% to 40.3% after ten years of schooling. This is quite a frightening situation. It implies quite a big education waste in terms of manpower, education costs and similar other issues. Factors contributing to this situation may include issues such as child labour, truancy, poverty, and lack of interest resulting from teaching approaches, school environment and prosperity.

The survival rate to grade 10 of girls is much more affected. This is indicated by the fact that the lowest survival rate of 19.8% in 1991 and the highest 59.2% in 1990 as to that of boys of 23.9% in 1993 and 90.7% in 1994.

I

n general, the coefficient of efficiency of boys is shown to be on the average slightly higher than that of boys 81.2% as to 81.0%. This implies that gender parity in terms of coefficient of efficiency is almost negligible.

On the average the coefficient of efficiency in primary education has been very low in the period 1991-1993. This has been a period of high repetition. Also, high drop-out rate is observed in 1993. This is the period in which most of the educational changes started to take place. The change from primary light to seven, the removal of standard three and six examinations, and other changes took place.

Generally, it can be argued that inefficiency in the primary education has mainly been contributed by the high rate of dropout each year and in some cases that of repetition.

7.2.8 Learning Achievement

7.2.8.1 Mean performance on 44 essential items and percentages of standard 6 pupils reaching minimum and desirable levels of reading mastery.

Region

Performance on 44 essential items

% reaching a minimum level of mastery

% reaching a desirable level of mastery

 

Mean SE

% SE

% SE

Urban/ West

20.5 0.26

52.9 1.56

7.8 0.84

North Unguja

16.4 0.46

32.3 2.93

2.0 0.88

South Unguja

17.2 0.44

36.8 3.02

1.1 0.66

North Pemba

19.7 0.43

52.3 2.63

5.7 1.22

South Pemba

18.2 0.35

38.6 2.43

3.1 0.87

Zanzibar

19.1 0.17

46.1 1.04

5.2 0.46

Source: SACMEQ Policy Research Report No.4, 1998

The reading test was conducted in 1995 as part of SACMEQ initial education policy project in which Zanzibar was among the 7participating countries. The test was designed to provide a valid measure of basic literacy skills for standard 6 pupils in all participating countries. 59 test items was constructed so as to conform to the reading syllabi for standard 6 in these countries in 3 main domains of reading; namely narrative, expository and documents. The test items, which were originally designed in English, were translated into Kiswahili, which is the medium of instruction in Zanzibar primary education. 44 essential test items were picked out of 59 test items and administered to 2286 pupils selected randomly in all 5 regions. In each participating school not more than 20 pupils were selected to take part out of all standard 6 pupils.

The result of the test shows that the national mean for Zanzibar was 19.1 out of maximum possible score of 44. The critical analysis of the performance across the regions, indicate that the Urban/ West region had the highest performance with a mean of 20.5 and a standard deviation of 0.26, while North Unguja region scored the lowest performance. The reading literacy performance has also been observed across gender, socio economic status and schools location, which gives picture of variation beyond the regions.

As a whole the performance of boys were slightly better than that of girls at both minimum and desirable level of mastery. The socio economic environment, which was presented by a list of possession at home, was used to examine the variation in performance. It was found out that pupils from the well to do families were performing twice as a high than pupils from very low socio economic status. School location has also been a determinant of pupils reading ability. It was found out pupils from urban environment were performing extremely well than children from isolated places.

From the results of the SACMEQ project it has been concluded that the mastery of reading literacy of standard 6 pupils in Zanzibar is low, which can contribute to poor quality of primary education and affect the subsequent education levels. Vere (1993), Galabawa (1995) have concluded that the school environment in most of Zanzibar schools are not conducive for learning to take place as it characterised by shortages of instructional materials in almost all levels. Obura (1994) argued that the main activities taking place in the classrooms in Zanzibar schools was not talk and chalk but rather pupils copying down notes. In 1998 MoE admitted that the enrollment of pupils has increased a lot faster than the capacity of the system to inject essential inputs such as well-trained teachers, textbooks, equipment, appropriate curricula and furnished classrooms.

7.2.8.2 Achievement rate to final examination

7.2.8.2.1 Evolution of Results of Form II Common Examinations

Session

1990*

1991*

1992

1993

1994

1995

1995

1996

1997

% succeeded MF

9.70

11.25

45.55

9.82

28.74

26.39

32.92

34.52

31.30

% succeeded M

12.72

13.20

45.61

11.85

32.73

30.07

38.28

31.13

34.34

% succeeded F

6.70

9.30

45.50

8.00

25.28

22.98

33.77

27.85

28.30

* Common Examination was conducted at the end Form III

The national terminal examinations are conducted at the end of form 2 effective from 1992. Prior to that terminal examination was conducted at the end of form 3. The performance as whole is deplorable as less than 50% of students had been able to attain the 35% bench mark pass score. The performance of girls have been lower than those of boys throughout with exception in 1992 when the gap was slightly narrow in favour of boys. The national terminal examination is being used for selecting students joining second cycle lower secondary education. Promotion to second cycle lower secondary is quite low as less than one third of the student’s progress to the next cycle. Further analysis of the results depicts a district variation in performance.

7.3.1 Adult Literacy Rate

As has been pointed earlier the percentage of adults who are literate is not known, due to the fact that the last nationwide literacy census was conducted in 1986 and indicated that 126,022 adults were illiterate. The figure represented about 38.5% of adult population. Effort to reduce the illiteracy rate has not been so successful as most learners are not attending classes and even those who attend drop outs before gaining literacy. In recent years the department of adult education has been conducting demand driven adult education classes targeting women income generating groups, fishermen and farmers. Attendance in these classes has been much better as normal cases it is the facilitator who follow the learners than other way round.

However, illiteracy seems to be on increase due to the fact that there are number of school age children who do not attend schooling either due to shortage of space in schools or lack of parents awareness in some pockets of remote places. Another contributing factors are incidence of pupils dropping out of schools early before even completing lower primary. When these factors are put together it is fair to conclude that illiteracy among adults in Zanzibar is on the increase.

7.3.2 Training in Essential Skills

The Zanzibar education policy stipulates the diversification of education by introducing skills training within the curriculum so as the learners will be prepared for life after graduating from schools. The integration of education with productive work is the result of the philosophy of education for self-reliance, which the country has embarked on. Schools were envisaged to be centres of both academic excellence as well as production. As a result MENA (literally mean programme of education with work) was conceived in 1986 and later revised in 1990. Schools introduce self-reliance activities such as farming, poultry keeping, knitting, handicraft etc. as part of extra curricula activities. Formal curricula was introduced in late 1980’s, in two pilot secondary schools; namely Lumumba and Fidel Castro which were converted into fishing and agriculture biases respectively. The agriculture and fishing bias was later abandoned due to poor preparation. From early 1990’s, some few selected secondary schools to provide general curriculum combine with one bias subject. The main focus has been on technical, commerce, science and Islamic studies besides general secondary school curriculum. However, these specialised secondary schools serve a small segment of secondary school students.

Apart from employable skills, MoE has been emphasising on life skills that will enable students to acquire socio cultural skills. Through Child to Child, Moral Ethics and Environmental Studies and Information and communication materials of school centred water and Environmental Education programmes pupils have play an important role as a change agent in disseminating nutrition, environmental cleanliness, health and HIV/AIDs prevention message to their respective communities. The message has help in containing the beliefs and myth on certain diseases on food consumption on certain communities.

7.3.3 Education for better living

Mass media and traditional communication channel have been widely used not only in entertaining the society but also in delivery of very important messages to the people. The public television has a special programme meant for children. This programme is utilised by MOE for televising education programme. This programme is shown in the evening when most children are at home. Pupils access to television is quite high, at home or at public places television sets are available in most of the public places. Another important channel of communication is a long tradition of conveying messages through plays, drama and poetry. The CTC programme, and WES has been using IEC materials for delivering health and environmental sanitation messages to students, who later transmit the same message to their community. IEC has been widely used in schools to influence behavioural change.

The media has also being used for providing low cost in service training of teachers. The establishment of Distance Education Unit and construction of NTTC and 9 district based TC’s have facilitated training of unqualified primary education teachers through distance learning. The unit is responsible for curriculum and material development, training of core trainers and providing support service while the district based TC’s are responsible for providing face to face contact and other supports to the trainees. At a secondary level, some teachers are attending part-time undergraduate degree programme offer by Open University of Tanzania.

8.0 Effectiveness of EFA strategy, plans and programmes

As has been stated earlier than the Government of Zanzibar had been providing free basic education to all children even before the EFA. After the launching of EFA the government reassessed its capacity to expand basic education while at the same time improve its quality. Among the strategies employed in the realisation EFA goals were, in the first place the reduction of basic education cycle from 11 years to 10 years, with primary schooling being 7 years instead of 8 years. Private schools were allowed to operate starting from 1993 with aim of expanding access and providing alternative to the public system. Also, curriculum reform was instituted by minimising the number of subjects at primary level from14 to 8. Apart from that community were responsible for expanding access to basic education by taking responsibility of constructing classrooms and establishing low cost community base pre-schools. However, inspite of those strategies The Education Sector Review (1995) found out that the attainment of EFA goals by the year 2000 was far from being achievable. The main reason behind was the school age population was increasing at a faster rate than the capacity of the public system to inject inputs due to financial constraints. Although, donor agencies pledge to support Zanzibar in realisation of EFA goals but the support was limited and after the 1995 multi-party election, the bilateral donors stop their support to Zanzibar which retarded the capacity of the education system to meet its needs. The main achievements since the EFA in 1990 are as follow:-

9.0 Main problems encountered and anticipated

Among the main problem encountered in realisation of EFA targets are shortage of fiscal resources. The education budget has been fluctuating between 12.5% and 13.7% of the total government expenditure although the government of Zanzibar has for along time committed itself to increase the share of education budget until it reached 20% of the total government spending. However, due to poor economic performance the government has been unable to fulfil it promises. As a results most of the schools lack basic education inputs. The low public investment in education has a number of adverse effects among them are:-

10. Public awareness, political will and national capacities

The Government of Zanzibar has made a remarkable stride in creating policy environment favourable to the realisation of EFA goals. Among the efforts of the government includes, the Education Policy document of 1992, the liberalisation of education in1993, the development of ZEMAP in 1996. Through the above social policies, the government has shown the political commitments of working towards meeting the basic needs of the population.

Due to the favourable political environment, stability, sound economic policies and mass mobilisation, the social demand for education has increased considerable. Due to high demand for education the communities has been increasingly contributing funds or labour in establishing additional places for their children. The public demand for better education for their children is also being reflected by school’s committee involvement in management of the schools.

11. General Assessment of the progress

The implementation of EFA has attained a high amount of success in Zanzibar especially in expanding access. The GER at the primary and basic education levels have increased considerable for the last 8 years. However, there is a potential trade-off implicit in the goals of rapidly expanding enrolments. Drastic measure should be taken to address the qualitative aspects of education. Among the suggestions put forward in accelerating enrollment and at the same time proving quality education to all are as follow:


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