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Part III – PROSPECTIVES

12 AREAS FOR FUTURE POLICY CONSIDERATION

12.1 BEST PRACTICES AND INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION.

The decade of EFA have witness several innovation in the provision of education in Zanzibar, both quantitatively and qualitatively. These innovations have been the results of the pilot projects in diversity areas ranging from expansion of access, the delivery made and low cost teachers training. Among them, worth noting which facilitated the realisation of EFA goals are as follows:

12. 1.1The Pre – school madrasa initiative.

This was a pilot project initiated jointly by MOE, AKF and local voluntary bodies notably (CBO’s) in 1989. The project is good example of proper partnership between the government, non-governmental organisation and community in meeting the education needs and demand of the local environment. The project aimed at taking advantage of the traditional Quranic school network in the delivery of secular education through improved physical facilities, and teaching methodology.

The pre-school madrasa are low cost community own pre-school which follow an integrated Islamic and secular education curriculum. The schools are established by the community themselves, who before their establishment form a school committee which is responsible for planning the starting of the pre-school. The committee is elected by the community members, which normally composed of a chairperson, the would be head-teacher as a secretary and about 7 to 9 members from the village; two of them being women. The school committee secure a plot donated by the community for the construction of the school, organise fund raising for purchase of building materials and community participation in the construction work. After, the construction of the pre-school madrasa, the school committee is responsible for identifying the would be teachers among the girls who have completed lower secondary education and have strong religious faith..

The Aga khan Foundation through the local NGO the Madrasa Resource Centre supplements the community efforts by providing in- service training of the pre- school teachers and school committee curriculum development, support in improvisation of teaching materials, regular supervision and support services and awareness creation on the needs of the child. Besides, the professional support, the MRC provides long term support to the community pre-school madrasa through the establishment of endowment funds, which are contributed by both the communities and the MRC, through the matching grant.

The community base pre-school madrasa have become so popular in Zanzibar. The number of community owned pre-schools have been increasing at a high speed. Up to 1998, there were only 21 community owned pre-school madrasa, which accounted for 35% and 54% of the all pre-schools and registered private pre-schools respectively. In 1999, there were 45 pre-school madrasa and account for 48% and 63% of all pre-schools and registered private pre-schools respectively. The popularity of the community base pre-school madrasa have been the result of the following:-

Some of pre-school madrasa provide continuity to lower primary education.

The community ownership of the pre-school madrasa has build community confidence on their capacity to manage institution efficient the and effectively.

Training of teachers and care givers are important in the quality development of the pre-school madrasa system. The community pre-school depends on volunteer teachers who are recruited among the girls lower secondary education leavers, these volunteers receive continuos in- service training by using the centre facilities as well as on spot training in the madrasa. The teachers before being certified attend in-service training for two years period. Orientation training is provided to teachers at the MRC, immediately after recruitment to be followed by once-a-week training for six hours in the first year. The training is organised on topic such as child development and psychology, material development and improvisation of instructional materials. During the second year training is offered once a month. Besides, institutional in-service training, regular support is provided in the classrooms during supervisor’s visits. Currently about 200 teachers have received training.

The pre-school madrasa network has the potential of expanding in every corner of Zanzibar at reasonable costs through community base programme. The recent survey by MOE on Quranic schools and un-registered pre-schools has found out there are 1,902 Quranic schools and 186 unregistered private pre-schools with a combined enrolment 39,878 children of 4-6 years of age. The Quranic schools and unregistered private pre-schools, will require the improvement of facilities and pedagogy of teaching through the community base pre-school system. It is through the network of the pre-school madrasa that Zanzibar will be able to reach all the children of 4-6 years of age at a reasonable cost and within a short period.

inspite of the strength of the pre-school madrasa network, further expansion of the system will face number of challenges as follow :-

Child-to-Child Project

The Ministry of Education in collaboration with Aga Khan Foundation, Tanzania has developed the Child-To-Child project on health education in Zanzibar. The project was developed in response to the prevalence of several health needs and problems in schools and communities. Among the problems facing the schools are lack of health education components in primary education and in pre-service and in-service teacher training curriculum. Others include inadequate access to basic utilities like clean water or acceptable toilet facilities in schools and communities, and severe malnutrition as well as high child and infant mortality rates mostly from preventable diseases.

The project was developed in 1990 on the basic of the philosophy that the child is both a learner and a potential change agent. As a learner, the philosophy regards the child as a capable of changing her/his own life style if she/he is provided with or exposed to appropriate health knowledge, attitudes and practices. As a change agent the philosophy views the child as being potentially capable of changing or influencing change in the health. Styles of others including his/her siblings, parents and community members at large. This influence may be exerted either individually or collectively with other children.

The project was run in two phases; Phase I which was the pilot phase 1990 – 1991, and Phase II, 1992 – 1995. In Phase I the project was introduced in 10 primary schools on a pilot basic and later was extended to 64 schools and teacher training college, reacting 16,000 pupils who comprises 13.5% of the total primary school population.

The project had two focal point for interventions; the child as a learner in the school setting and the child as a change agent in the family and community setting. Addressing the child as a learner, the CTC syllabus, delivered by the trained teachers in the schools, was expected to impart to school children health knowledge, attitudes and practices. The topics included in the CTC syllabus were selected on the basis of actual local health problems. These topics are as follows:

Among the activities carried out by the project are as follow:

The project was evaluated twice; during the pilot phase and after the completion of Phase II. Some of the recommendations which were put forward after the completion of the phase II are as follow:

There is no sufficient evidence to show that the project made any significant difference in the area of health attitudes to make CTC Communities excel over non- CTC communities in as the health attitude scores are generally quite high.

The CTC approach as it, was made operational through outreach activities undertaken individually and/or collectively by children (alone or assisted by their teachers) as community change-agents, seems to have been effective.

Other related projects which aim at influencing positive behavioural change within their homes and communities include UNICEF supported school centred Water and Environmental Sanitation and HIV/AIDS prevention education projects. The WES project has been carried out in 35 primary schools since 1997. The schools involved were identified due to the prevalence of WES related problems. Interventions in term of hardware (construction of latrine, wells, tapes and storage tanks) and promotion of sustainable change of behaviour through an information, education and communication was carried. IEC interventions has been demonstrated very strongly through songs, poems, plays etc. that children in WES schools developed to disseminate information on the causes and prevention and control of the major WES related diseases.

The HIV/AIDS prevention Education project aims at influencing students behavioural change in sexual practices and also being a means of transmitting information on HIV/AIDS prevention education to the community. The projects carried out baseline study to determine student’s sexual practice, which was found out to be high. In response to the study findings HIV/AIDS curriculum was formulated and learning materials were prepared and distributed in schools. Awareness training of tutors and trainers were conducted and it is envisaged the establishment of " Better Health Clubs" in pilot schools which will act as a centre for collection and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS prevention education to the youth both in and out of schools.

Another projects worth mentioning is Moral Ethics and Environmental Studies which is funded by UNFPA. The MEES project targets school youths with the aims of changing their KAP towards population, environment and adolescent problems. The project started on pilot basis in 40 primary and secondary schools is planned to cover all the schools by the year 2002. The MEES content based on topics related to hygiene, reproductive health, population has been integrated in the upper primary and lower secondary curriculum. The long- term objective of MEES is through students who are the future parents is to promote public acceptance of family size norms and sustainable population growth through moral ethics and population education in the formal school system.

12.1.3 The Science Camps Project.

The Science camps project started in 1988 by the Ministry of Education, Zanzibar in collaboration with the University of Dar-es-Salaam. The project was primarily funded by the Rockeffeler Foundation through its wing African Forum for Children’s Literacy in Science technology. Other donor’s to the project were Oxfam, BP Tanzania Limited, Aga Khan Foundation and UNESCO. The camp was conducted at NTTC during December holidays for 3 weeks. It brought together science lecturers and tutors from University of Dar-es-Salaam, Brandeis University (USA), New York City College and Nkrumah Teacher Training College, Zanzibar and selected science teachers and students of various schools in Zanzibar. The project introduced inquiry approach in science teaching. Teachers demonstrated the teaching of science by using local available materials. At later stage a component of marine environment was included in the camp activities. Through the project series of in-service training of science teachers were conducted for a period of 6 years. About 200 teachers benefited from the training some of them were females. Also through the camp science kits were distributed to all schools. The project brought changes in teaching of science by utilisation of local available materials in instruction process and had a considerable impact on the reform of science teaching in Zanzibar schools.

12.1.4 In-Service Training of Teachers through Distance Learning

The reliance on conventional face to face approaches in teacher training in Zanzibar has not been successful in providing the education system with adequate teachers. The only fully fledge teacher training; NTTC has a capacity to produce about 300 Grade III A and diploma teachers, while the demand is about 500 teachers annually. As a result, MoE has been recruiting untrained teachers annually to satisfy the demands. At present nearly 24.4% of the teaching force is untrained and did not possess the teaching credentials that allow them to provide high quality instruction. This has an effect on the pupil’s level preparedness and the quality of their education. One of the strategies employed to ensure better quality teaching is to train teachers through distance approach. MoE has decided to fully explore utilising non-conventional and innovative distance education methods to more adequately cater for unqualified in-service teachers.

The programme was established in 1996 and is now serving 410 teachers throughout Zanzibar. The main feature of in-service training is the establishment of TC’s in all districts, which serve a nucleus of 15-20 schools. These function as places where teachers can meet and exchange views and idea on the pedagogy of teaching, provision of learning resources and face to face contact with TC advisors twice a week and enhance the quality of teaching. . The TC’s receive support from the NTC, which is based at NTTC. The training has been organised in a modular approach and each teacher is supposed to progress according to his/her own pace. The training package is organised in a way that the learner has to complete a number of modules and awarded with Grade IIIB before undertaken Grade IIIA modules. The centres are headed by TC Co-ordinator and assisted by teacher advisors. The headteachers from each cluster schools form the management committee, which is responsible for raising funds, approval of budgets and training programme and activities. The training of in-service teachers through distance learning has minimise the cost of training has retain teachers in schools.

Future Policy Decisions

Zanzibar has made impressive advances in the realisation of EFA goals over the decade and can enter the new millennium with a sense of hope and optimism. However, there is a need to achievement gains and the lessons offered by our failures. Some of the areas that will require future policy consideration are as follow.

  1. One of the major obstacles to achieve EFA is scarcity of resources allocated to education. The education expenditure should be increased so as to read 20% of the total public expenditure as the government itself has promised for along period.
  2. Apart from the increase in total public education expenditure, an increased of the non-salary expenditure is necessary in order to improve quality of education.
  3. A further increase in educational finance should be attracted from the private sector, NGO’s, religious organisations and individuals.
  4. MOE should look on means of effective and efficient use of teachers. As large share of recurrent expenditure is consumed by teacher’s salaries and allowances, their is a need to rationalised the deployment of teachers. The pupils teachers ratio could be increased from the current average of 31:1 to 45:1 at a basic education level.
  5. Future efforts on expanding access to basic education should target specific groups such as children in Quranic Schools, girls in low awareness areas and disabled children who seems to lag behind in schooling. Special programmes and budget should be set aside to cater this group.
  6. In expanding access to basic education a great care and consideration should be put on both the demand and supply aspects. Strategies should be worked out in increasing education inputs such as textbooks, equipment since the provision of building alone is not enough to maintain enrolment.
  7. Effective education monitoring systems should be put in place to monitor the quantitative and qualitative performance of education system.
  8. The education provided is academic oriented and does not prepare learners for future living especially under the current situation of acute shortage of employment in formal sector. Like wise the education system has not responded to the demand side of the labour market which has been increasing diversify. The MOE should bridge the gap between the academic education and the skills requirement for the labour market by introducing vocational curriculum in the lower secondary education as well as skill training’s for out of school youths.
  9. The ZEMAP has not yet been operationalised due to lack of management machinery and monitoring system. Efforts should be directed to operationalised the master-plan implementation and put a monitoring system.
  10. The implementation of the EFA is mainly directed from the centre due to the lack of capacity and implementation mechanism at the region and districts levels. The MOE should strengthen the capacity of regional and district educational office and devolve more power and authority to the officers at level.

References:

Bazalgette, F.E. et al. (1998), "Alternative Learning for Out of School Children" Unpublished Consultancy Report.

IIEP and Ministry of Education, Zanzibar (1998); "The Quality of Education: Some Policy suggestion on a Survey of Schools – Zanzibar" IIEP, Paris.

Jongo, M.J. et al. (1990), "Ripoti ya Kuchunguza Rai ya Kurejesha Tena Shule za Watu Binafsi, Zanzibar" (A report of the committee on Reintroduction of private school), Unpublished.

Komba,D. et al. (1996) "Impact Evaluation of the Child-To-Child Health Education Project in Zanzibar" Unpublished study report.

Kweka, A.N., et al. (1994), "Adult Education and Social change in Zanzibar", Unpublished Research Report.

Little, A.W. et al. (1995), "Education in Zanzibar – Classrooms, Quality and Costs", Unpublished Project Evaluation Report.

Mapuri, O. R. (1995), "A Proposed Framework for Action on the Implementation of the Zanzibar Education Policy," Unpublished Policy Review Paper.

Mapuri, O. R. (1995), "Contribution of School Factors to Regional Disparities in Academic Performance: The Zanzibar Experience", Zanzibar Education Journal Issue No. 2/1997.

Mapuri, O. R. (1998a), "Internal Efficiency of the Zanzibar Basic Education System", Zanzibar Educational Journal Issue No 2/1999.

Mapuri, O. R. (1998b), "Tathmini ya Ubora wa Elimu Itolewayo Zanzibar" (An Assessment of the Quality of Education in Zanzibar) – A Manuscript for Publication.

Ministry of Education (1995): "Sera ya Elimu Zanzibar" – The revised Zanzibar Education Policy; Al-Khairiya Printing Press, Zanzibar.

Ministry of Education (1995), "Status Report on Monitoring EFA in Zanzibar", Unpublished Study Report.

Ministry of Education (1996) "Basic Education Indicators" Al-Khairiya Printing Press, Zanzibar

Ministry of Education (1996): "The Zanzibar Education Master Plan 1996-2000"; Government Printer, Zanzibar

Ministry of Education, Zanzibar "Prospective Stock-Taking Review of Education in Africa: The Zanzibar Case Study"; Unpublished report.

Ministry of Education (1999) Budget Speech for the Hon. Deputy Chief Minister and Minister of Education, Zanzibar"; Government Printer, Zanzibar.

Ministry of State, (President Office), Planning and Investments "Rolling Plan and Forward Budget for Zanzibar 1994/95 – 1996/97.Unpublished Report.

Mohammed, S. I. Et al. (1996), "The State of Education in Zanzibar’’ Unpublished Sector Review Report.

Mosha, H.J, & Sumra, S. (1992), "Zanzibar Educational Policies Affecting The Teacher Quality Supply and Demand" Unpublished Consultancy Report.

Mzee, A.Y. (1994). "Basic Education in Zanzibar: Progress, Problems and Issues;" Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Alberta.

Mzee, O. Y. (1994), "Financing of education in Zanzibar" Unpublished Research Report.

Obura, A.P. (1994), "Issues in Education in Zanzibar Options for Development in the Islands", Unpublished Consultancy Report.

Sumra S, and Mushi, P.S.D. (1993): "Report on Evaluation of Performance Test and Administration to Standard Four Pupils in Zanzibar" Unpublished.

United Republic of Tanzania (1993) "The National Programme of Action: Achieving the goals for Tanzanian Children by the year 2000", Unpublished Report.

Vere, J.K. (1993): "Primary School Curriculum Review Report", Unpublished Research Report.

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