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Part I Descriptive Section


The EFA 2000 Committee would like to extend their acknowledgements to UNESCO and UNICEF for funding workshops, which have led to the compilation of this report. The committee would like to thank the two Ministries of Education for releasing their officers to contribute written papers, and to compile and edit the report. The officers have worked very hard in order to meet the set deadline. The EFA 2000 national coordinators and heads of statistics divisions from the Southern African countries are thanked for analysing and commenting on this report. Their comments have contributed to the great improvement of the final report. Many education stakeholders and departments from different ministries need a special mention as their written submissions led to the initial compilation of the report. Without their participation, this report could not be a reality.

EFA Production Team Members

Mr. G.J.T Makwati (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. F Choga (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. P.G Kajawu (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. S Shumba (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. F Kanyowa (Ministry of Higher Education and Technology)

Mr. P Pfukani (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. P Chikwanda (Ministry of Higher Education and Technology)

Mr. S Rwezuva (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)

Mr. M. T Mukabeta (National Commission for UNESCO)

Mr. C Mbirimi (Ministry of Education Sport and Culture)


Terms of Reference

The purpose of the EFA 2000 Assessment was to compile a country report on the National EFA programme in terms of national goals, activities, achievements, constrains and the way forward. The EFA country programme was to be reviewed in the context of the 1990 World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) held in Thailand and the consequent Jomtien Declaration.


  1. To produce the Zimbabwe EFA country report by 30 September 1999
  2. To review progress in relation to the core EFA indicators.
  1. To recommend the way forward as a contribution to the global analysis of EFA


The national coordinator put together a production team of ten officers from the two Ministries of Education and the National Commission of UNESCO. Due to limited time, it was decided to produce a qualitative study based on interviews, documentation and workshops. A set of structured questions was distributed amongst most stakeholders in an attempt to identify collaborative activities and efforts towards the achievement of EFA.

A retreat for the production team was held at the Churchill Arms Hotel in Bulawayo, to synthesize the data and complete the draft report. Overall the report was a desk study due to a very tight time frame.


The EFA 2000 assessment programme was packed within a very short time. It was not possible to adequately cover such a broad study within the given time. Members of the production team had to share their limited time between their routine duties and the EFA report.

Notwithstanding the national commitment, political will and the support of UN Agencies and donors, it was difficult to mobilise meaningful financial and material resources within the limited time.

Many stakeholders worked independently of each other. There was no deliberate effort to collaborate. This made it difficult for the production team to collect and collate the available information. Responses to the structured questionnaire on the activities of the various stakeholders were very poor.


Zimbabwe is located in southern Africa and shares boundaries with Zambia in the north, Mozambique in the east, South Africa in the south, Botswana in the west and Namibia in the far southwest (see Figure 1). It is a land locked state with an estimated population of 11 789 274 million people (CSO, ICDS 1997) The population of males and females is 48 and 52 percent respectively. The main economic activities are agriculture, mining and manufacturing. Tourism has become the fastest growing industry in Zimbabwe.

Table 1 Zimbabwe: Some Basic Facts


391 000 km2


11 789 274

Density in km2

30 inhabitants/ km2

Urban population (%)


GNP per capita in US $


Educational expenditure as % of GNP 1993


Literacy rate (%)


Source: CSO 1997: Inter-Censal Demographic Survey Report (ICDSR)

Figure 2 shows the framework of the nine education administrative regions. Zimbabwe has been divided further into 59 district council areas.

Figure 2

Education Administration Regions

The Ministry of Higher Education has a slightly different administrative structure.

Various types of colleges offering tertiary education report directly to Head Office.


Zimbabwe gained its independence in 1980, after almost 100 years of British colonial rule. The colonial era was built on white supremacy, racial segregation, institutionalised violence and oppression of the majority African population by the white minority. The first ten years of independence were committed to rectifying the social inequities brought by the former colonial regimes. The new government was committed to the creation of a socialist state, which was guided by the principles of social justice and equity. Education was declared a human right. It was regarded as a potent tool for social and economic transformation.

The Jomtien Declaration of EFA in 1990 was actually in tandem with most of the on going Zimbabwe national educational policy goals, as declared in 1980. The relevant goals were:

Soon after independence the government took the following measures to create a framework for the provision of education for all in order to achieve the above national goals:

  1. It declared primary education (later to be one of the components of basic education in the Jomtien Declaration) a basic human right.
  2. It abolished all forms of social and economic discrimination.
  3. It made primary education free and compulsory.
  4. The age limit to entry into primary school was waved so that those who had missed out by reason of the war could benefit.
  5. It launched a massive national programme to reconstruct schools destroyed during the war and to build new ones.
  6. It made the provision of primary education a joint effort between itself and the local authorities (such as rural district and urban councils) and the other responsible authorities (such as churches, trusts and private sector actors, individuals, etc.,) who were given the responsibility to build and own primary schools.
  7. It paid all the teachers within the authorised establishment at all registered schools, whether primary or secondary.
  8. It further paid a tuition grant for every child enrolled or attending a registered primary or secondary school.

During the first decade of independence (1980 – 1990) Zimbabwe’s national educational goals were more of general declarations and statements of intent. The policy formulation process was hurried and highly centralised. The goals and targets were not cast within a time frame. They were largely an act of faith as the strategies and targets were neither well defined nor focused. These goals were not tied to the availability of the requisite resources. The provision of education was therefore regarded as a compensatory act for those who had been denied the opportunity by successive regimes of the colonial era.

Notwithstanding the above, the most dramatic achievements in providing education for the majority of the population were made during this first decade. The formal sector of the education system was expanded to unprecedented levels. The number of primary schools increased from 3161 to 4504, an increase of 42.48 percent. Secondary school increased from a paltry 197 in 1980 to 1502 in 1989, a sharp increase of 662 percent. Enrolments increased by over 200 percent across the whole system. Primary school enrolments jumped from about 820 000 in 1979 to 2.08 million in 1990, an increase of 154 percent. The corresponding increase in the size of the teaching force was equally remarkable as the force registered an increase of 229 percent from 18 483 in 1979 to 60 886 by the end of the decade.

The number of teachers’ colleges was increased significantly during the decade so as to supply a sufficient number of trained teachers to service the expanding system. By 1990 there were 15 teachers’ colleges in the country, ten of which trained primary teachers while five trained secondary teachers. Innovative approaches to the training of primary school teachers were adopted to augment teacher supplies from the conventional colleges. Pre-service teacher training in four of the 10 colleges which trained primary teachers combined short residential training (a duration of about one year) with extended teaching practice in the schools (a duration of about three years). This approach to teacher education was/is called the Zimbabwe Integrated Teacher Education Course (ZINTEC).

In 1988 a separate Ministry of Higher Education (now the Ministry of Higher Education and Technology or MOHET) was formed to take charge of all tertiary education which consists of teacher training, technical and vocational education and university education.

The output from the teachers’ colleges has progressively increased over the years since independence. For example between 1994 and 1998 the primary colleges produced a total of 15 796 graduates while secondary colleges produced 11058. Such performance by these colleges has enabled government to greatly reduce the unacceptably high ratio of untrained teachers in the education system. Data on Table 2 below show the progressive elimination of professionally unqualified teachers in the education system since 1990 when nearly half of the primary school teachers were untrained. By 1997 more than 77 percent of the primary school teachers and about 89 percent of secondary school teachers were trained.

Table 2 Percent Trained Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (1990 - 1998)

















































Source: MOESC ‘A Profile of Education in Zimbabwe’, p. 17.

Progress has also been made in efforts to equip the out-of- school youths with the necessary skills for survival in the labour market. While there were only three Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) in 1990, the number has risen to 15 countrywide by 1999. It is envisaged an additional 22 VTCs to be established by the year 2000 will benefit a large number of school leavers who leave the school system each year.

The planning function, which was less formal in the 1980s, improved a great deal in the next decade. By 1990 a few lessons had been learnt. As a consequence, the planning and policy formulation process became more defined and focused. The national goals were cast within a time frame and reflected a broader view of basic education. Until 1990 basic education was equated to primary education. However, following upon Jomtien in 1990 basic education acquired a broader view, which encompassed early childhood education and development and adult literacy. This broader view found expression in the targets for the achievement of the EFA goals in the various sub-sectors of the education system, which Zimbabwe set soon after the International Conference on the Rights of the Children, held in New York in September 1990. These targets are contained in the National Plan of Action for Children (NPA) which was set up by the President for monitoring the implementation of the EFA goals. The final NPA document was launched in 1994 in Dakar, Senegal. However, Zimbabwe's strategy for achieving EFA goals by year 2000 should be seen in the context of the overall government's strategy for universalising access to basic education and its thrust towards educational quality enhancement. The Jomtien Declaration of Principles was embedded in the country's existing overall strategy for educational development in the 1990's up to the year 2000 and beyond. This strategy was reformulated and refined following Jomtien to include key targets for the achievement of the following EFA goals by the year 2000:

1.0 Brief description of EFA goals and targets

Government's initiatives to facilitate the attainment of the EFA educational goals and targets are contained in the National Programme of Action for Children (NPA), which was officially adopted and launched in Dakar, Senegal, in 1994. The National Programme of Action for Children (NPA) is the government’s current plan of action for achieving EFA goals by the year 2000.

In order to fully implement its NPA programme government formulated and adopted several time-bound national strategies for the following:

  1. Expansion of early childhood care and development activities;
  2. Universal access to, and completion of, primary education by the year 2000;
  3. Improvement in learning achievement;
  4. Reduction of the adult illiteracy rate, especially the disparity between male and female illiteracy rates;
  5. Expansion of basic education and training in other essential skills required by youth and adults;
  6. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better leaving, made available through all education channels.

The government’s overall approach to the implementation of the NPA programme of action and to achieve the goal of education for all has been characterised by the following:

The commentary in the subsections that follow below gives an overview of each of the above strategic thrusts.

1.1 Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

Goal: Expansion of early childhood care and developmental activities

Targets(s): To increase access to Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) from 20 percent to 48 percent by the year 2000

Background and description:

During the colonial era, ECEC was only accessible to a privileged few who were mostly in urban areas. Private organisations and individuals were largely responsible for running ECEC centres. They tended to charge exorbitant fees which effectively excluded the majority who could not afford them. This meant that children from rural areas and poor communities had no access to ECEC centres. Even with the attainment of independence in 1980, there was no immediate government intervention to enhance access to ECEC.

Government intervention only began in 1982 when ECEC centres were placed under the Ministry of Community Development and Women’s Affairs. Government had realised that ECEC programmes were necessary in order to promote the holistic development of children to enable them to reach their full potential for formal school and life-long education. Children had to be offered stimulating environments to realise this goal.

In 1988, the status of ECEC was enhanced when it was brought under the Ministry of Education and Culture. This was a major turning point. In 1990 the government accepted that ECEC was an integral part of the formal education system. It was declared a basic human right like all other forms of education. In view of this development, the following policy objectives were adopted in order to achieve the broad ECEC goals:

Although Government through the Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture appears to have taken the lead in the development of the ECEC programmes, it is worthy noting that there is a variety of stakeholders outside the ministry who play an equally important role in the provision of early childhood education and development services. These include local authorities and communities and their centre development committee (CDC) structures, NGOs, church groups, as well as private organisations and individuals. Some of these efforts and activities are summarised in Table 2 below.

Table 2 Stakeholder activities related to early childhood education and development



Government / Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture

Policy formulation, registration of centres, payment of allowances for ECEC centres, data collection and capacity building for various levels. Networking with other agencies on ECEC.

Local authorities and communities

Building physical facilities for ECEC centres, payment of salaries and allowances for ECEC teachers and supervisors.

UN agencies and NGOs

Providing funds for constructing physical facilities, funding for courses and workshops for community, ECEC teachers and trainers as well as other Ministry officers. NGOs, e.g. Save the Children (UK), focus their efforts in disadvantaged areas.

Nursery School Teachers’ Association (Registered Schools of Zimbabwe)

In-service courses for member teachers

Workshops and courses for member teachers.

1.2 Primary Education

The Zimbabwean education system has gone through several stages of development since independence in 1980. The first decade witnessed a massive expansion of the education system as an endeavour to improve access and participation. Since 1988 the Ministry has expanded its focus to include considerations of the enhancement of educational quality, equity, relevance and internal efficiency as areas of special emphasis.

After Jomtien in 1990 the government intensified and strengthened its efforts to promote universal access to primary education. The following objectives were formulated under the Education Sector Strategy of the National Plan of Action for Children (NPA) for fulfilling this goal:

Strategic Thrust for Primary Education:

The overriding objective of the Ministry’s strategic thrust is to provide universal, inclusive, affordable, quality primary school education. The specific strategies to be implemented to achieve the above objectives for primary education included the following:

ones to take in more pupils;

and provide support to schools in these areas;

Education in Bulawayo;

1.3 Improvement of Learning Achievement

The education system in Zimbabwe has been and is still academically oriented and examination-driven. The main goal in learning achievement is to pass the end of cycle examinations. However, it has been found over the past 19 years that only about 30 percent of any given cohorts manage to pass the academic examinations at the General Certificate of Education (Ordinary Level) and reach the tertiary level. It has also been noted that this type of assessment is not the best to measure learning achievement. The need to broaden the assessment goals spectrum has been hotly debated in Zimbabwe. On its part the Government has taken the following initiatives to improve the quality and relevance of the teaching and learning that goes on in the schools and thereby improve on learning achievement:

improved nutrition, sanitation, water supplies and health facilities at school and in the community

Government efforts to improve the quality of education through improved training and teacher qualification has paid dividends. The proportion of trained teachers in the school system increased dramatically between 1990 and 1997. Table 3 below shows the improving trends during this period. From a situation where nearly half of the teachers in both primary and secondary education were untrained in 1990, over 77 percent of primary school teachers and about 89 percent of secondary school teachers were trained by 1997 and 1996, respectively.

Table 6 Percent Trained Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (1990 - 1997)

















































Source: MOESC ‘A Profile of Education in Zimbabwe’, p. 17.

The sex ratio of teachers in the primary school system also narrowed significantly. Out of the 64521 teachers in the primary school in 1997 about 45 percent were female teachers, giving a sex ratio was 1 female to 1.2 male teachers. There are more female teachers than males in the urban primary schools today.

1.4 Reduction of Adult Illiteracy

Having recognized the importance of adult and non formal education as an alternative mode of providing basic education, the ministry created the Division of Adult and Non- formal Education. This division was tasked to develop means of providing cheaper basic education as well as opportunities for those who would have dropped out of school. The main goal of adult literacy programmes is the eradication of illiteracy among adults. The target of the programme was to increase literacy rates among adult from about 62 percent in 1992 to 80 percent by the year 2000.

The following strategies were adopted in order to meet the target for the eradication of illiteracy among adults by the year 2000:

Providing adults with programmes of general adult and family-life education;

To spearhead the implementation of these strategies the Division of Adult and Non Formal Education was tasked with the responsibility for:

  1. Formation of study groups and correspondence (distance education) colleges;.
  2. Monitoring the teaching and learning that takes place in the correspondence (distance education) colleges
  3. Introduction of functional literacy programmes where teachers were seconded to teach adult evening classes;
  4. Production and distribution of teaching and learning materials for the Zimbabwe Distance Education (ZIDE) and Zimbabwe Adult Basic Education Course (ZABEC) which catered for the education of adults;
  5. Establishment of a radio channel (Radio 4) for educational programmes.
  6. Supporting efforts of local NGOs, such as the Adult Literacy Organisation of Zimbabwe (ALOZ) which brings adult literacy programmes to work places and other industrial establishments for the benefit of the workers.
  7. Writing and producing literacy materials of materials with the following:
  8. a functional/vocational bias to cover the fields of Agriculture, Home Economics, carpentry and Woodwork, Building, etc.

    a civics and political orientation such as those dealing with the theme of the liberation struggle and how the Zimbabwe Government works;

    - a bias towards the socio-economic lives of the adult learners;

    - a bias towards the acquisition of communication skills, e.g. Basic English for

    Communication (BECO);

  9. Recruiting specialist teachers to:
  1. Introduction of a three year primary school equivalent course for adults (Zimbabwe

Basic Education Course - ZABEC) adequately provided with relevant learning and

teaching materials;

  1. Launching (from 1990) a campaign to encourage employers of labour to open
  2. functional literacy classes at their work places so that basic education related to the

    acquisition of work related skills could be conducted;

  3. Launching a mass media campaign (using radio and television and newspapers) on

International Literacy Days to urge the nation and especially employers, NGOs, urban,

rural and district councils and other local stakeholders to launch miniature campaigns of

their own to publicise the importance of adult literacy;

  1. Production of a bi-monthly newsletter ("In Touch") to inform and educate adult

learners and the public on the developments and progress in Zimbabwe and to serve

the purpose of improving and sustaining post literacy skills.

Although the target of 100 percent literacy among adults is yet to be achieved, the results of the joint efforts between government and private initiatives towards that end have been impressive to date. According to the 1997 Inter-Censal Demographic Survey Report (1997 ICDSR), carried out by Central Statistical Office, 83 percent of the adult population compared to 80 percent in 1992 were literate. The literacy rates for 1997 were higher for males (90 percent) than for females (82 percent). These literacy rates for both sexes were also higher than those for 1992, which were males (86 percent) and females (75 percent). The trend remained the same for the 1992 and 1997 in terms of gender differences. The report concludes "The higher literacy rates indicate major improvements in the provision of education services" (1997 ICDSR p. 82).

1.5 Expansion of basic education and training in other skills required by youth and adults.

More than 300 000 youngsters are churned out of the Zimbabwean schools every year. The majority of these find themselves without gainful employment and with no skills required for employment. Most well established training institutions require at least five ordinary level passes for one to enrol in any of their programmes. This leaves school dropouts and those failing to attain the minimum academic requirements with no possibility of acquiring employable skills. The harsh economic climate in the country has caused many factories to close-down, thereby depleting the job-market and also increasing the numbers of the job seekers and the unemployed.

Faced with this problem, the Ministry of Higher Education and Technology, in line with its mandate, accepted that education and vocational training are vital elements in job creation and in combating unemployment and social exclusion in our societies. The Ministry decided to take urgent measures to strengthen the links between labour markets and education policies to address the pressing unemployment problem. To this end the Ministry sought to establish vocational training centres (VTCs) in all the major urban centres of the country. Consequently, VTCs have been established in order to:-

The courses offered at the Vocational Training Centres are wide ranging and are generally in line with the core activities of the immediate communities. The curricula are designed in consultation with the local communities. Some of the courses being offered are: leather tanning, hairdressing, agriculture, photography, carpentry, mechanical engineering, electronics (e.g. radio and television repairs), automotive engineering, metal fabrication and dressmaking.

Up to about 1990 training for informal sector activities was not a government priority although some Vocational Training Centres like Msasa and St. Peters in Harare and Westgate in Bulawayo existed at that time. Government only prioritized the VTCs in 1998 through an expanded programme of vocational and skills training. As of September 1999 the ministry of Higher Education and Technology (MOHET) had established 15 VTCs out of an envisaged total of 22 by the year 2000. However, evaluation has yet to be carried out to assess whether they are achieving their intended goals.

Without relevant support services, this apparently noble skills training programme may be an end in itself. The Informal Sector Training and Resources Network programme (ISTRN), which is donor supported, creates employment opportunities by giving support for the individuals after training as well as creating a link between their operations and those of established centres in similar business. A pilot project has been a success story in Masvingo Province. Replication of the programme is expected soon in Manicaland, and later in all other provinces.

Government also encourages the establishment and strengthening of school-based and community-based education programmes which equip children, adolescents and adults, with special attention to girls and women, with a whole range of knowledge, living skills, and values required for success in life. Organs of government, the private sector and civil society such as NGOs have taken up the challenge to educate local communities in improved health, environmental management, water and sanitation, etc., as some of the prerequisites for social development.

Relevant initiatives in this regard have led to innovations in school curricula to include Human Rights Education, HIV/AIDS Education and Population Education at both primary and secondary school levels. These efforts have been supported and complemented by the efforts of civil groups such as the human rights organisations, church leaders, employer organisations, trade unions, community leaders, and others. The objectives of the Human Rights Education are to: promote and strengthen respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, promote the values of tolerance, responsibility and respect for the diversity and rights of others, and to provide training in peaceful conflict resolution, in accordance with the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2005. The objectives of the Population Education are, among others, to teach school learners about conservation of the natural environment, human sexuality and reproductive health, child health, HIV/AIDS Education in the formal curriculum seeks to educate school children and the youths about health and protection against HIV infection and AIDS, care for the AIDS victims, etc. All these innovations are broad-based educational programmes intended to reach the school children, the youths and adults.

It is in this context of increasing acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living that the Government lays emphasis on full and equal access to education for girls and women as investment in the education of women is the key element in achieving social equality, higher productivity and social returns in terms of health, lower infant mortality and the reduced need for high fertility.

The role of NGOs in this respect has been impressive. A typical illustration is the work of the Save the Children Fund (UK). The thrust of the activities of the Save the Children Fund (SCF) is the marginalised, rural communities in the remote Zambezi Valley. This NGO’s objectives are:

SCF uses participatory approaches to teach children how to repair and service water pumps as well as how to manage the water points. Communities in the Zambezi Valley are taught how to plan for emergencies and how to analyse the food security situation at household level.

SCF has worked with schools and children in malaria prevention by identifying and destroying mosquito-breeding locations around both the schools and homes. Children have in turn taught their communities about the causes, prevention and importance of early treatment of malaria.

Apart from SCF the government created a national radio channel broadcasting educational programmes in agriculture, health and culture, etc.

1.6 Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living through all education channels

1.6.1 Introduction

Life-long education has become common in Zimbabwe. In addition to the vocational training centres described above individuals and families do acquire knowledge, skills and values required for better living through a variety of education channels besides the regular school system. Learning opportunities outside the regular school system can be found on the shop floor, in the churches, employers’ organisation and trade union premises, in the correspondence (distance education) schools and colleges, evening classes of various types, and in the print and electronic media. Some of these learning experiences are very formalised and follow the regular formal school programmes while others are less so and offer programmes that are not generally found in the formal school curriculum. Some offer skills-based training such as those designed for and run by women’s groups. Some of these programmes result in the awarding of certificates in recognition of the achievements made, others do not.

Zimbabwe’s media, both electronic and print, offers a strong element of life-long education. Much of what is contained in the print and electronic media is designed for both educational purposes and for mobilising people to increase their awareness and knowledge. What follows is a brief statement of the use of the media, policy, management and funding of media educational programmes, and the quality, effectiveness and perceived outcomes of media efforts to promote better living in society.

1.6.2 Use of the electronic media and print media for educational purposes:

The electronic and print media are used quite extensively for educational purposes in Zimbabwe. Both types of media seek to educate, inform and entertain. The broadcast to schools programme are regularly aired by Radio Channel 4, during the working week and at weekends. The target groups are children in school as well as adults. Television broadcasts are made during the day for the youths, adults and children. These do range from coverage of ordinary lessons conducted for school children in selected subjects such as understanding and skills in Mathematics, Science, English and local language lessons to general knowledge and information and or general mobilisation campaigns. The commonest topics covered by both television and radio are the following:

These programmes are designed for both in-school and out-of-school learners. They are made to be specific to classroom situations or general enough to be of value to the out-of-school learners and audiences. They are also relevant to the requirements of teachers, as in the process of delivery they assist the teacher to appreciate the teaching methodologies used. Public service announcements are also frequently distributed through the radio and television.

The Schools Quiz programme on television has been running for a very long time now and is very popular with both school children and adults. It is generally aired during evening prime viewing time.

The print media generally has the same mission as the electronic media with regard to informing and educating the population. Circulation of the print media is, however, limited to the literate segments of society. Only one national newspaper is written in a local language. However, there are provisional newspapers written in the local languages but these have very limited circulation in the country.

Radio coverage is generally more effective than television coverage as the former is able to reach most geographical areas of Zimbabwe, except for some remote international border areas such as those bordering Botswana. Television coverage is limited to the major urban centres where electricity is available. Rural areas without this source of energy cannot access television programmes.


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