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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  General Description   The Espinhaço Mountain Range represents the largest and most continuous Precambrian orogenic belt of Brazil's territory, serving as a water divider between the São Francisco River basin and the river basins that drain directly into the Atlantic Ocean. It extends in the North-South direction, over a length of approximately 1,200 km, from the Belo Horizonte Region to the northern border of Bahia with the states of Pernambuco and Piauí, its width varying from a few kilometers to over 100 km. Along the 1,000 kilometers of the cordillera, alternating elevations with peaks reaching up to 2,017 meters allow for an enormous diversity of climate and rainfall conditions. The Espinhaço Range is not a single block and there is a discontinuity in northern Minas Gerais, which divides the cordillera into two segments.

At the higher elevations (over 500 m) of the Espinhaço Range, a unique phytophysionomy in the world - the “rupestrian fields”- dominate. This type of vegetation is predominantly composed of a more or less continuous herbaceous stratum and small, sclerophyllous evergreen bushes. Although only a small number of areas have been intensely inventoried, it is estimated that there are approximately plant 3000 species. 30% of the taxa are estimated to be exclusive to the rupestrian fields, which would represent approximately 1000 to 2000 endemic species. A high level of endemism is also observed in the fauna: endemic birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes have been recorded.

The extent of the Biosphere Reserve (over three million hectares) and its biological, geomorphological and historical importance justify the implementation of measures aimed at the preservation of this mountain complex. There are 16 protected areas (National Parks, State Parks, State Ecological Stations and Municipal Natural Parks), which form the core areas. In addition to natural values, there are cultural assets such as the colonial towns of Ouro Preto, Congonhas, and Diamantina that are UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites, as well as artistic and religious manifestations that are still kept alive along the entire length of the cordillera.

The population of the Biosphere Reserve totals 642,735 (2000) and include the indigenous group of Pataxó, several quilombola (runaway slave) communities, religious groups or existentialist sects, as well as the people living in 'gold towns' that were built by bandeiras (groups of explorers looking for gold in the 18th century) - initially as mining centers, ranches and register posts - that developed into commercial centres and later on cities and districts. A management plan is being formulated, and the Committee for the Espinhaço Range Biosphere Reserve is being created.
  Major ecosystem type   'Cerrado' with of rupestrian fields.
  Major habitats & land cover types   Espinhaço Range brings together the three large biomes of Brazil: the Mata Atlântica (Atlantic Coast Woods), the Cerrado (thick woods) and the Caatinga (morpho-climatic region with dry climate and scant vegetation), but the dominant vegetation consists of rupestrian fields, considered typical of the Cerrado.
  Location   External Limits 20° 18’ South to 17° 00’ South; 43° 40’ W to 44° 08’ West
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   3,076,458
  Core area(s)   204,522.14
  Buffer zone(s)   1,879,996.65
  Transition area(s) when given   991,939.01
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   -425 to + 2070
  Year designated   2005
  Administrative authorities   Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais
  Brief description   : The objective is to develop inter-sectoral integration and to establish partnerships for conservation of the natural aspects of the Espinhaço Range, prioritizing the connectivity of the landscape elements, such as vegetation remnants, ecological corridors, orographic groups, and drainage basins, with the perspective of monitoring and controlling actions pertaining to sustainable development, creating a policy under which the Biosphere Reserve stands as a reference for regional and national planning, valuing cultural habits and customs.

Population dynamics of plants, including endemic and threatened species; Phenological and germination studies of endemic and threatened species; Survey of the large fauna; Studies on pollination made by bees; Survey of birds; Ecology and population dynamics of reptiles and amphibians; Interactions between insects and plants; Soil-plant relations; Ecophysiological studies of the flora; Anatomy of galls produced by insects; Survey of climatic data; Regenerative potential of soil; Biomonitoring of aquatic fauna; Biomonitoring of water; Studies on recuperation of degraded areas; Studies on medicinal herbs.
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Abiotic factors, climate, hydrology, monitoring/methodologies, soil.
  Biodiversity   Amphibians, birds, degraded areas, ecology, endemic species, fauna, flora, invertebrates/insects/spiders, monitoring/methodologies, natural medicinal products, phenology, plants, pollination, population genetics/population dynamics, rare/endangered/threatened species, reintroduction, reptiles, restoration/rehabilitation/redevelopment, species inventorying/inventory.
  Socio-economic   n.a.
  Integrated monitoring   Interdisciplinary studies.
  Contact address   Sergio Augusto Domingues
Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais
Rua Paracatu, n° 304 / sala 903, Barro Preto - Belo Horizonte
Código Postal: 30.180.090 Minas Gerais
  Telephone   (55.31) 3295 6073
(55.31) 3295 3614
  Fax   (55.31) 3295 3455

Last updated: 08/03/2011

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