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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  General Description   The Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve is located at the south-eastern part of the Caspian Sea. Major habitats include wetlands, inter-tidal mud with sandy shore, shallow marine waters, forested peat lands, raspberry shrub forests, tamarix forests and agricultural areas.

Miankaleh was designated a Ramsar site in 1975. About 109,200 Turkmen and Iranians live in the biosphere reserve on a seasonal basis (2000). Their main sources of income come from agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, carpet weaving, traditional poultry farming and tourism. Major problems facing the biosphere reserve today are overgrazing, illegal hunting, sailing, fishing, deforestation, and the spread of villages without management planning.
  Major ecosystem type   Freshwater wetlands
  Major habitats & land cover types   Eutrophic marshes with species such as glasswort (Salicornia spp.), reeds (Phragmites communis), sedges (Carex spp.), rushes (Juncus spp.) etc.; sand dunes with Punica spp.
  Location   3645' to 3655'N; 5325' to 5405'E
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   68,800
  Core area(s)  
  Buffer zone(s)  
  Transition area(s) when given  
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   -28 to +15
  Year designated   1976
  Administrative authorities   Department of the Environment
  Brief description   Limnological & hydological studies
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Hydrology.
  Biodiversity   n.a.
  Socio-economic   n.a.
  Integrated monitoring   n.a.
  Contact address    
Department of the Environment
P.O. Box 15875-5181
  Telephone   (98.21) 826 99 14
  Fax   (98.21) 826 99 14

Last updated: 29/07/2004

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