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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  General Description   The Reserve is an area of high geological and ecological complexity and of human activity. It presents a high diversity of environments that correspond to nine types of vegetation. It is of great relevance as it is the North limit of the rainforest in the American continent and a unique case in Mexico and North America, given the connection of different types of forests and rainforests, from the sea coast to the summit of the volcanoes. It constitutes a source of rainwater harvesting for being one of the rainiest areas of the country.
Since it is a mountain of volcanic origin, it presents an abrupt topography of difficult access for productive activities. The different geology and volcanological history occurred in each one of the three great volcanoes, had as consequence the floristic differentiation in the forestal cover of each volcano, forming a heterogeneous mosaic of forests and rainforests particular to each volcano.
In the mountain Los Tuxtlas and its surroundings, eight different climatic subtypes are represented, six subtypes of warm climate, one semi-warm and one temperate. According to Köppen’s climate classification, modified by García (1964), the subtypes warm-humid are the most extended in the area (subtypes Af and Am).
In the region of Los Tuxtlas were some of the first urban settlements of Mesoamerica and the continent. Different phases of the Olmeca culture were developed in this zone. Currently in the area we can find indigenous groups (popolucas and nahuas) that maintain a great part of their cultural features. The zone is a mosaic of ethnic groups: indigenous mestizos and natives of different European origin.
  Major ecosystem type   The Tuxtlas Biosphere Reseve presents a high diversity of environments and types of vegetation. Nine types of primary vegetation have been identified in it, However, the predominant forest in the reserve is the evergreen forest.
  Major habitats & land cover types   Within the reserve we can identify nine types of vegetation, highlighting the evergreen forest due to its extension, followed by the mountain mesophyllic forest; added to other types of habitats, such as mangrove and coastal dunes.
  Location   18 05´ - 18 45´ latitude N and 94 35´ - 95 30´ longitude W
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   155,122
  Core area(s)   29,720.85
  Buffer zone(s)   125,401.63
  Transition area(s) when given   178,877.53
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   1680 m
  Year designated   2006
  Administrative authorities   Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas
  Brief description   Since 1964, when UNAM set up the Tropical Biological Station Los Tuxtlas, there has been scientific research to know the Mexican Southeastern forest. There are initiatives and projects in the area for the conservation and development undertaken by governmental sectors, academic institutions, social organizations and non-governmental organizations.
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Abiotic factors, air quality, climate, contaminants, drought, geology, geophysics, glaciology, habitat, hydrology, modelling, siltation/sedimentation, soil, speleology.
  Biodiversity   Algae, amphibians, arid/semi-arid, autoecology/synecology, biodiversity, biogeography, biology, birds, coastal/marine, community studies/communities, conservation, degraded areas, dune systems, ecology, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, ecotone, endemic species, ethology, evapotranspiration, evolutionary studies/palaeoecology/evolution, fauna, fires/fire ecology, fishes, flora, forest systems, freshwater/inland water, genetic resources, genetically modified organisms/gmo, home gardens, indicators, lagoon systems, lichens, mammals, mangrove, mediterranean type/scherophyll, migrating populations/migration, monitoring/methodologies, natural resources, perturbations/resilience/vulnerability, pests/diseases, phenology, phytosociology/succession, plankton, plants, polar/arctic, pollination, productivity, rare/endangered/threatened species, restoration/rehabilitation/redevelopment, species inventorying/inventory, temperate forest, tropical grassland and savanna systems, vegetation studies/plant cover.
  Socio-economic   Agriculture/Production systems, agroforestry, anthropological studies/anthropology, archaeology/paleontology, bioprospecting, cultural aspects, economically important species, energy production systems/alternative energy, fishery/fisheries, forestry, human health, indicators of sustainability, local participation, mining, monitoring methodologies, non-timber forest products/ntfp, pastoralism/pastoralists/grazing, poverty, quality economies, recreation, traditional practices/ethnology/traditional knowledge.
  Integrated monitoring   Ecosystem approach, education and public awareness, environmental change, institutional and legal aspects, interdisciplinary studies, land tenure, monitoring/methodologies, policy issues, transboundary/transfrontiers, urban systems/towns/cities.
  Contact address   José Faustino Escobar Chontal
Camino al Ajusco No. 200, 3er Piso, Col. Jardines en la Montaña
14210 Tlalpan
  Telephone   (55) 54 49 70 01
(55) 54 49 70 45

Last updated: 3/8/2011

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