To Unesco home page

To sitemap

To MAB home page title2.gif (2287 bytes)
      Biosphere Reserve Information

Russian Federation


  General Description   The Khankaiskiy Biosphere Reserve lies in the Prikhankayskaya and Prisungachinskaya Lowlands in the central part of the Zapadno-Primorskaya Plain, close to the Chinese border. The relief is mostly flat, but five ridges separated by wet depressions lie along the eastern coast of Lake Khanka. They are former beach ridges of the lake. Lake Khanka, which is shared between Russia and China, is one of the largest freshwater lakes in Eastern Asia. The Biosphere Reserve includes a part of Lake Khanka and is composed of open lowlands with meadows, wetlands, swamps, and many small lakes. Also designated a Ramsar site, it is particularly noted for its variety of bird and fish species. 337 bird species are observed in the Biosphere Reserve and the variety of ichthyofauna of the lake has no analogues among other freshwater bodies in the Palaearctic (74 fish species). The unique ornithofauna of the Lake Khanka Basin was first described by N.M. Przhevalsky (18691870). Japanese crane (Grus japonensis), white-napped crane (G. vipio), and far east stork (Ciconia boyciana) are protected here in co-operation with other state nature reserves. The Prikhankayskaya Lowland is also the only nesting-place of reed parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei) and intermediate egret (Egretta intermedia) in Russia.

The swamps of the eastern shore of Lake Khanka are unique in the region concerning vegetation and wildlife. The flora consists of 680 species of vascular plants and 322 species of algae. Higher plants include heat-loving and ancient species such as Manchurian water-nut (Trapa manshurica), lotus lily (Nelumbo komarovii) and prickly water lily (Euryale ferox).

The climate, landform, and soil features contribute to make this area one of the most developed agricultural areas in the Russian Far East. There are many farms, a dense communication network, inhabited areas and specialized enterprises. A major concern of the Biosphere Reserve is to avoid pollution from agriculture and industry.

Some 3,500 people, mainly of Russian and Ukrainian origin, live permanently in the Biosphere Reserve. Economic activities are not allowed in the core area, where only protection of natural ecosystems, short-term studies, and monitoring take place. In the buffer zone and transition area, the main activities include agriculture (livestock-breeding, rice, soybean and vegetable fields), forestry, fishery, fish farming, ecotourism and recreation.

A management plan will be elaborated and implemented for Khankayskiy following the designation as a biosphere reserve.
  Major ecosystem type   Temperate broadleaf forests or woodlands; wetlands
  Major habitats & land cover types   Wetlands, wet meadows, and swamps dominated by Korean bur reed (Sparganium coreanum), bur reed (Phragmites australis), tabernaemontani bulrush (Scirpus tabernaemontani); Lake community with algae such as Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta, Cryptophyta, and higher aquatic plants such as water-nut pseudoincisa (Trapa pseudoincisa), Maximowicz water-nut (T. maximowiczii), and prickly water lily (Euryale ferox); Steppe-like meadows with Arundinella characterized by Arundinella anomala, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), etc.; Sand shore dominated by willow pieroti (Salix pierotii), Japanese willow (S. nipponica), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila), Daurian rose (Rosa davurica), etc.; Broadleaf forest dominated by Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) and including amur linden (Tilia amurensis), amur corktree (Phellodendron amurense), and Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica).
  Location   45?14'N; 133?14'E (Chertovo Boloto (northern area))
4449'N; 13240'E (Zhuravliny (eastern area))
4434'N; 13227'E (Rechnoy (southern area))
4437'N; 13214'E (Melgunovsky (western area))
4452'N; 13207'E (Sosnovy (western area))
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   299,896
  Core area(s)   44,979 (of which freshwater zone: 5,690)
  Buffer zone(s)   96,517 (of which freshwater zone: 24,074)
  Transition area(s) when given   158,400
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   -10,6 to +147
  Year designated   2005
  Administrative authorities   Directorate of the Khankayskiy State Nature Reserve Lake Khankayskiy Biosphere Reserve, reporting to the Ministry of Natural Resources
  Brief description   This zonation is optimal for the fulfilment of the three main functions of the Biosphere Reserve.
Hydrometeorological, hydrochemical, ecological, and agrometeorological monitoring; Groundwater regime observation; Long-term monitoring of seasonal changes and features of natural ecosystems, and the number of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians; Vascular plant biology; Survey of objects of commercial fishing of the Lake Khanka Basin; Survey of species composition, number dynamics, and biological attributes of fish; Herpetological survey; Monitoring of soft-shell turtle population; Ornithological survey; Records of migrating waterfowl and nesting places of colonial and near-water birds; Records of wintering birds and birds of prey; Environmental monitoring and survey of natural resources of Lake Khanka; Hydrobiological monitoring; Tularemia centres investigation; Survey of Oxytropis chankaensis population; Observation of ungulates and carnivores.
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Abiotic factors, groundwater, hydrology, meteorology, monitoring/methodologies.
  Biodiversity   Amphibians, biology, birds, ecology, ecosystem assessment, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, fauna, fishes, freshwater/inland water, mammals, migrating populations/migration, monitoring/methodologies, natural resources, plants, population genetics/population dynamics, reptiles, species inventorying/inventory, wildlife.
  Socio-economic   Fishery/Fisheries.
  Integrated monitoring   Environmental change, integrated studies/interdisciplinaty, monitoring/methodologies.
  Contact address   Yury P. Sushitsky
Khankayskiy Biosphere Reserve
10 Yershova street
692245 Spassk-Dalniy city
Russian Federation
  Telephone   7 (423-52) 2-31-38
  Fax   7 (423-52) 2-31-38

Last updated: 13/12/2007

To topTo MAB home pageTo UNESCO