|Biosphere Reserve Information|
Kristianstads Vattenrike is located in Skåne, the southernmost of Sweden’s provinces. The area includes the lower drainage basin of the River Helge å and the coastal waters of Hanöbukten Bay, which is part of the Baltic Sea. The distinctive morphology and geology of the area, the interface between lakes and running water and the brackish water of the Baltic Sea, and the variations in local climates have created unique conditions for a diversity of land cover types. Many of the values in this cultural landscape are a result of the long-term cultivation of the land, but there are also areas that serve as a refuge for biological values that are not predicated on human activity. At the heart of the area is an expanse of rich wetlands of international importance (Helgeån Ramsar Site). Other examples of biotopes include running water, broadleaf forests, sandy grasslands formerly managed under a rotational system of cultivation and fallow, inland and coastal dunes, wet and shoreline forests etc. The area consist of nature reserves, Natura 2000 sites and habitat protection areas as well as areas of national interest for the purposes of nature conservation, shore protection areas, forests with nature conservation agreements, and municipally- or state-owned nature conservation areas. The area includes 711 species that have been nationally red-listed and at least 22 species, including freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera), cod (Gadus morhua), pond bat (Myotis dasycneme), and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) recorded on the IUCN Red List.
The biosphere reserve comprises the main part of the Municipality of Kristianstad and some parts of the sea area. The municipality has almost 75,000 residents. The town of Kristianstad, situated at the heart of the biosphere reserve, is a centre for commerce, service, trade and industry. Local industry is extremely varied, although the main focus is on foodstuffs and agriculture with ancillary industries. Together with public and civil administration, trade and services, this constitutes the main basis for employment in the area. There is also a Ecomuseum in the area with a stretch of countryside dotted with numerous visitor sites aimed to communicate via demonstration facilities and outdoor museums the values of the local aquatic environment, the threats it faces and the opportunities that exist to preserve, develop and expand these values.
The Ecomuseum/Biosphere Candidate Office serves as a platform for coordination and operational activities. There are plans to establish a Biosphere Reserve Office in the future that will fulfil the three functions of a biosphere reserve, as well as initiate, support and coordinate work related to ten proposed theme areas.
|Major ecosystem type||Temperate and sub-polar broadleaf forests or woodlands; Wetlands|
|Major habitats & land cover types||Lakes and running water with alder (Alnus glutinósa), slender naiad (Najas flexilis), white water-lily (Nymphaea alba), amphibious bistort (Persicaria amphibia) etc.; Grazing pasture and hay meadows characterized by velvet bent (Agrostis canina), common bent (A. capillaris), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris) etc.; Forests including beech forest (Fagus sylvatica), other deciduous forests with species such as wych elm (Ulmus glabra), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), or small leafed lime (Tilia cordata), alder forest (Alnus glutinosa) and other wet broadleaf forest, Riparian scrub with a variety of willow species (Salix spp.), pine forests with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and dwarf mountain pine (P. mugo), spruce forest with Norway spruce (Picea abies); Coastal ecosystems including landscapes of extensive sand dunes with marram (Ammophila arenaria), orache spp. (Atriplex spp.), sea rocket (Cakile maritima) etc.; Marine ecosystems with macroalgae such as Ectocarpus spp., Fucus vesiculosus, and F. serratus, and vascular plants such as fennel pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tasselweeds (Ruppia spp.), horned pondweed (Zannichellia palustris) and eelgrass (Zostera marina); Arable land with potato, beet, barley, rye, bread wheat, and carrot; Built-up areas including urban centre, residential and industrial areas.|
56°01’57"N; 14°08’58"E (Central point)
56°10’26"N; 15°13’15"E (Northern limit)
55°56’13"N; 13°45’04"E (Western limit)
55°48’14"N; 13°58’42"E (Southern limit)
55°51’33"N; 14°28’42"E (Eastern limit)
|Core area(s)||7179 (of which marine: 221)|
|Buffer zone(s)||22899 (of which marine: 6715)|
|Transition area(s) when given||74597 (of which marine: 6924)|
|Altitude (metres above sea level)||-19 to +190|
|Administrative authorities||The Municipality of Kristianstad|
The zonation of the biosphere reserve has been determined on the basis of current Swedish legislation. Thus, the zones do not involve any new restrictions, but are designed to facilitate the prioritization of different forms of support to protect and develop the values of the area. The zonation, where the protected core areas are surrounded by buffer zones, makes clear the ecological and socio-economic interdependence between the various areas.
Tracing of leachate pollutants at treatment plants as a base for development of treatment and water quality control systems; Inventories of breeding wetland birds; Studies of birds in forests, agricultural areas and along watercourses; Studies of environmental toxins in marine fish; Studies of populations of threatened plant species; Censuses of River Pearl Mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera); Inventories of common frog (Rana temporaria), moor frog (Rana arvalis), and natterjack toad (Bufo calamita); Inventories of forested areas with regard to vegetation, forest damage, stand composition and site productivity; Inventories of bats; Studies of the conditions for biodiversity; Population regulation of dabbling ducks for wetland management decisions about hunting seasons and quotas; Integrating ecosystem function into river quality assessment and management; Changes in natural and cultivated landscapes; Pupils’ learning about ecosystems; Inventory of meadows and pastures. Socio-economic issues include research on the history and development of Kristianstads Vattenrike; Biodiversity from the general public’s perspective; The River Helge å Valley and Mankind - strategies over time and changes in the landscape.
|Abiotic||Geology, monitoring/methodologies, pollution, pollutants, toxicology/toxic substances.|
|Biodiversity||Amphibians, biodiversity, biology, birds, conservation, ecology, ecosystem assessment, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, evolutionary studies/palaeoecology/evolution, fauna, fishes, forest systems, freshwater/inland water, invertebrates/insects/spiders, monitoring/methodologies, perturbations/resilience/vulnerability, plants, population genetics/population dynamics, productivity, rare/endangered/threatened species, species inventorying/inventory, vegetation studies/plant cover, wetlands.|
|Socio-economic||Agriculture/Production systems, anthropological studies/anthropology, archaeology/paleontology, cultural aspects, economic studies, hunting, people-nature relations/man/nature, social/socio-economic aspects, stakeholders' interests.|
|Integrated monitoring||Carrying capacity/Sustainability, ecosystem approach, education and public awareness, environmental change, impact and risk studies/environmental impact, integrated studies/interdisciplinaty, interdisciplinary studies, landscape inventorying/monitoring, management issues, sustainable development/sustainable use.|
Biosfärkontoret Kristianstads Vattenrike
291 80 Kristianstad
|Telephone||(46.44) 13 64 80
(46.44) 13 64 83
|Fax||(46.44) 13 64 84|
|Last updated: 4/10/2006|