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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  General Description   Human activities:

Core Areas:
Activities within the core areas include subsistence farming, fisheries, and non-timber forest products collection.

Buffer zones:
The buffer zone is mainly used for fisheries, plantation forestry, palm oil and commodities cultivation, subsistence farming, and timber and non-timber forest products gathering.

Transition area:
This are is mainly designated for settlements, livelihood and subsistence farming, oil palm and rubber farmers, employees/labourers in large plantations, agri-based industries, forest-based industries, mining, gas and oil exploitation, and various trades/commercial uses.

Ecological characteristics:

Recognizing as part of the Sumatra peat swamp eco-region, Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSK-BB) posses a unique habitat and plays a significant role to help sustain populations of rare, endangered and endemic species. About 189 plant species, consisting of 113 families and 59 genera are recorded in this area. 29 out of the total number of this plant species are categorized as a protected species under Appendix 1 and 3 of CITES. Nine protected species found in this area include red palm (Cyrtostachys lakka, Arecaceae), jelutung (Dyera costulata, Apocynaceae), nyatoh (Ganua motleyana, Sapotaceae), tiger orchid (Grammatophyllum speciosum, Orchidaceae), dara-dara (Knema sp., Myristicaceae), mengris (Kompassia malaccensis, Mimosaceae), kantong semar (Nephentes spp., Nepenthaceae), suntai (Palaquium leiocarpum, Sapotaceae), and balam (Palaquium burckii, Sapotaceae). The core area is dominated by peat swamp forest types. The plant species have been recorded in this area including Gonystylus bancanus (ramin), Palaquium leiocarpus (nyatoh), Durio carinatus (durian burung), Shorea teysmanniana (meranti bunga), Tetramerista glabra (punak).

Several key animal species which are recorded in the core area and listed as a protected and endangered species under the Appendix 1 CITES including two species of birds (hornbill Buceros bicornis and Mycteria cynerea), four mammals (honey bear Helarctos malayanus, tapir Tapirus indicus, Sumatra elephant Elephas maximus, and Sumatra tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae), two reptiles (false gharial Tomistoma schlegelii and estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus) and one endangered fish species Scleropages formosus, also known as the Asian bony-tongue or arwana.
  Major ecosystem type  
  Major habitats & land cover types  
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   705,271
  Core area(s)  
  Buffer zone(s)  
  Transition area(s) when given  
  Altitude (metres above sea level)  
  Year designated   2009
  Administrative authorities   Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia
  Brief description  
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   n.a.
  Biodiversity   n.a.
  Socio-economic   n.a.
  Integrated monitoring   n.a.
  Contact address   Endang Sukara
Indonesian National Committee for MAB Programme, Deputy for Life Sciences
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Sasana Widya Sarwono, 3rd floor, Jl. Gatot Subroto No. 10
 Jakarta 12710
  Telephone   (62.21) 522 5711 ext. 288
(62.21) 525 2362 (direct)
  Fax   (62.021) 525 2362

Last updated: 18/06/2010

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