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      Biosphere Reserve Information

Russian Federation


  General Description   Kedrovaya Pad is the oldest Russian reserve, created in 1916 and located in the extreme south of the Russian Far East, not far from the borders with China and North Korea. Two main mountain ridges, Gakkelevsky and Sukhorechensky, around 400 metres above sea level characterize the relief and form a river valley. The environment in this region has suffered from damages from human activities, especially forest fires, and Kedrovaya Pad is the only area still in native conditions and the only example of south-Ussury taiga. The coniferous-broadleaf forests of Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve combine elements of the northern taiga and subtropical forests, but in this area southern flora predominates. The overlap of southern and northern species of plants and animals explains the high biodiversity with many endemic and relict species of the Far East such as the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), and Himalayan bear (Ursus thibetanus). In spite of its small area (only 0.1 % of the Primorsky Province territory), an important number of animal and plant species can be found here, and the Biosphere Reserve contains 900 of the 2000 vascular plant species found in Primorsky.

The location of Kedrovaya Pad at the southern tip of the Primorsky Krai places it in the path of warm, humid air masses from the Philippines. As a result, the frost-free period stretches an extra two months in comparison with nearby areas. The mountainous relief also plays a significant role in creating microclimates within the Biosphere Reserve and provides conditions for specific species present only in Kedrovaya Pad and neighbouring areas. For example, at the headwaters of the Gakkelevsky Stream, which are protected from the sea by a mountain ridge, the number of sunny days each year can be up to three times greater than in the central regions of the reserve. For this reason, sun-loving plants like melons and tomatoes grow well in regions just a few kilometres from areas where they cannot grow at all.

This area attracted naturalists since the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries and was visited by famous Russian scientists who were responsible for the creation of the Reserve. Flora and vegetation, many groups of invertebrates, birds and mammals were studied here in detail. A program of ecological education for local and regional schools exists in Kedrovaya Pad and there are plans to create an Ecocenter for ecological education. There are several settlements around the Biosphere Reserve, which counts a population of about 11,000 people. The main economic activities take place in the buffer zone and include forestry, agriculture, coastal fishery, and salmon breeding. The transition area has not yet been officially designated. Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve is under the direction of the Biology and Soil Studies Institute of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
  Major ecosystem type   Temperate broadleaf forests or woodlands; Boreal needle-leaf forests or woodlands; Subtropical forests
  Major habitats & land cover types   Needle fir-deciduous forests dominated by needle fir (Abies holophyla) and with Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica), and maples (Acer barbinerve, A. mono, A. pseudoseiboldianom, A. komarovii); Korean pine-deciduous forests dominated by Korean pine and with needle fir, linden (Tilia amurensis), and maples; Kingam fir-deciduous forests dominated by Kingam fir (Abies nephrolepis) and with needle fir, Korean pine, and linden; Oak forests dominated by Mongolian oak and with birches (Betula davurica, B. costata, B. schmidtii), ash (Fraxinus rhynchofyilla), and maples; Deciduous forests characterized by Mongolian oak, maples, birches, etc.; Birch forests characterized by birches (B. davurica, B. costata, B. lanata, B. platyphylla, B. schmidtii) and with Korean pine, Mongolian oak etc.; Willow, chosenia, alder and ash forests characterized by willows (Salix gracilistila, S. integra, S. schwerinii, S. udensis), chosenia (Chosenia arbutifolia), alders (Alnus hirsuta, Populus koreana, P. maximowiczii), and ashes (Fraxinus rhynchophylla, F. mandchurica); Lespedeza and hazel shrubs dominated by lespedeza (Lespedeza bicolor, L. tomentosa) and hazels (Corylus mandshurica, C. heterophylla); Mountain and valley meadows with burnets (Sanguisorba officinalis, S. parviflora, S. tenuifolia), elecampane (Inula japonica),etc.; Hydrobiological communities.
  Location   4301' to 4309'N; 13124' to 13136'E
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   38,583
  Core area(s)   18,044.8
  Buffer zone(s)   5,538
  Transition area(s) when given   15,000
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   +30 to +698
  Year designated   2004
  Administrative authorities   Directorate of the Kedrovaya Pad State Nature Reserve - Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve.
  Brief description   The core area is the main territory of the Kedrovaya Pad State Nature Reserve and presents a unique combination of natural aspects of the Ussury taiga. Only scientific research is allowed here. The buffer zone is contiguous to the core area and here only activities compatible with the conservation objectives such as hunting, forest felling and bush and grass burning are allowed. The main objective is to protect the core area from direct and indirect impacts of human activities. The transition area has not yet been officially designated.

Temperature monitoring; Long-term monitoring (Nature Chronicle) including annual survey of seasonal changes in natural ecosystems and number of main mammals and birds; Vascular plants biology; Monitoring of rare and endangered vascular plant species; Monitoring and study of ecological features and behavior of far east leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) including monitoring of their prey species; Hydrobiological study; Control of air pollution using lichens; Precipitation control of air pollution.
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Acidic deposition/Acid rain, air quality, hydrology, monitoring/methodologies, pollution, pollutants.
  Biodiversity   Biology, birds, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, ethology, lichens, mammals, plants, rare/endangered/threatened species, species inventorying/inventory, wildlife.
  Socio-economic   n.a.
  Integrated monitoring   n.a.
  Contact address   I. V. Maslova
Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve
Primorskaya station, Khasanskiy district
692710 Primorskiy Krai
Russian Federation

Last updated: 13/12/2007

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