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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  General Description   The Camili Biosphere Reserve is surrounded by mountains on three sides, and meets the Georgian border on the fourth side to the north. There are three main valleys with the Biosphere Reserve. The main ecosystem types are boreal coniferous forest and temperate deciduous forest including tree species such as black alder (Alns glutinosa), oriental spruce (Picea orientalis), Caucasus lime tree (Tilia rubra ssp. caucasicus), hazelnut (Corylus avellana) and Sessile oak (Quercus petraea). The Camili basin is part of the Karçal Mountains Important Plant Area, which is one of the 122 Important Plant Areas defined in Turkey. The basin is the only area where the Caucasus bee race has remained without its purity being damaged. It is one of the three most important bee races in the world.

Many mammals are threatened by extinction because of habitat loss and illegal hunting. The brown bear (Ursus arctos), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are among the main target species to be protected in the Camili region in Northeastern Anatolia, which is one of the few regions where they can find refuge. Important carnivore species in the area include wolf (Canis lupus), jackal (Canis aureus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), badger (Meles meles), marten (Martes foina) and weasel (Mustela nivalis) which are evaluated as target species for securing the ecological balance. The Karçal Mountains with the Camili forests is one of the important habitats of the endemic Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi).

There are six villages in the biosphere reserve and the permanent population is 1213 people (268 households). Due to the geographical conditions of the area the roads are blocked by snow for 4-6 months in winter. Local people are dependent on nature in order to perpetuate their living. Human-nature relations are built on traditional knowledge and experiences from the past. Besides traditional agriculture and animal husbandry, queen bee production, organic agriculture and ecotourism are considered as the basic activities for a potential economic development. Among the income generating activities, queen bee and honey production are the major activities in the basin. Biological Diversity and Natural Resource Management Project (GEF-II), which is supported by the GEF between 2000 and 2006, is being carried out in the Camili Biosphere Reserve.The organizations responsible for the application of the management plan are the Republic of Turkey, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks, and BDNRMP Camili Project Management.
  Major ecosystem type   Boreal coniferous forests, Temperate deciduous forest; Rain forest; Temperate grasslands ecosystems
  Major habitats & land cover types   Boreal Coniferous Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest characterized by Fagus, Picea, Abies, Alnus, Tilia and Corylus species; Meadows and pastures dominated by Poa species, Sibbaldia parviflora, Carex adrata and Stachis adrata.
  Location   41º20'49" to 41º31'32"N; 41º49'36" to 42º05'27"E
  Area (hectares)    
  Total   27,152
  Core area(s)   2237
  Buffer zone(s)   13731
  Transition area(s) when given   11184
  Altitude (metres above sea level)   +400 to +3415
  Year designated   2005
  Administrative authorities   Camili Biosphere Reserve, reporting to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry
  Brief description   Zones have been selected and determined since they include important habitats and species significant for conservation and biodiversity purposes and which are important at a regional and national basis, they have less social and physical pressures, they do not have conservation problems, they carry a common conservation value for a participatory management, they can pioneer in economic development, and they can provide planned utilization in specific areas, which may meet the management targets and provide a legal status by taking into consideration existing laws.

Flora; Fauna; Socio-economic status; Establishment of a model for socio-economic monitoring; Biodiversity monitoring program (Quality of alpine zones in selected areas; Meadows supporting wildlife populations; Quality of sub-alpine meadows in selected zones; Number of alpine meadows hosting Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi); Distribution of Natural Old Forests; Pure Caucasus bee race).
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Abiotic factors, erosion, groundwater, hydrology, indicators, monitoring/methodologies.
  Biodiversity   Amphibians, biodiversity, biogeography, birds, boreal forest, conservation, degraded areas, ecology, ecosystem assessment, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, endemic species, evapotranspiration, fauna, fishes, flora, forest systems, freshwater/inland water, fungi, lichens, mammals, migrating populations/migration, mountain and highland systems, natural medicinal products, natural resources, perturbations/resilience/vulnerability, pests/diseases, phytosociology/succession, plankton, plants, pollination, population genetics/population dynamics, productivity, rare/endangered/threatened species, reintroduction, reptiles, restoration/rehabilitation/redevelopment, species inventorying/inventory, sub-tropical and temperate rainforest/sub-tropical forest, taxonomy, temperate forest, temperate grassland, vegetation studies/plant cover, wetlands, wildlife.
  Socio-economic   Agriculture/Production systems, capacity building, cultural aspects, demography, economic studies, human migration/population exodus, local participation, people-nature relations/man/nature, poverty, social/socio-economic aspects, stakeholders' interests, tourism.
  Integrated monitoring   Conflict, geographic information system/gis, indicators, infrastructure, land use/land cover, management issues, mapping, monitoring/methodologies, planning and zoning measures/zonation, remote sensing, sustainable development/sustainable use, transboundary/transfrontiers.
  Contact address    
Camili GEF II Proje Müdürlügü
Gündogdu Mah
08400 Borçka/ARTVIN
  Telephone   (90 466) 4151303
  Fax   (90 466) 4151071
  Web site

Last updated: 10/04/2006

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