|Biosphere Reserve Information|
© Photo: Lalitha Vijayan, SACON
This biosphere reserve represents a unique and threatened ecosystem in the tropics within the Western Ghats Mountain system. It is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots and provides habitat for the probably largest South Indian populations of tiger (Panthera tigris), elephant (Elephas maximus) and other large mammals.
Several ethnic groups inhabit the area, including the only surviving hunter-gatherers of the Indian subcontinent, the Cholanaikans who concentrate in the Nilambur area. The 1,160,200 permanent inhabitants of the biosphere reserve (2000) subsist on the use of natural resources (such as medicinal plants), agriculture, agri-horticulture and the commercialization of these products. Eco-development programmes are envisaged to provide schemes for generating additional income and security for people, such as forest and grassland management, habitat improvement, animal husbandry, apiculture and aquaculture, development of crafts, education and health, etc. About 200,000 people visit this region annually (2000), thus tourism has also become an important source of income.
|Major ecosystem type||Tropical forest; Mixed mountain and highland systems|
|Major habitats & land cover types||Tropical humid evergreen forests characterized by Dipterocarpus indicus, Mesua ferrea, Palaquium ellipticum etc.; tropical montane shola grasslands with Cinnamomum wightii, Elaeocarpus serratus, Syzygium aromaticum etc.; tropical semi evergreen forests including Vitex altissima, Gmelina arborea, Persea macrantha etc.; tropical moist deciduous forests with Terminalia tomentosa, Dalbergia latifolia, Schleichera oleosa etc.; tropical dry deciduous forests characterized by Albizia chinensis, A. lebbeck, Anogeissus latifolia etc.; scrub jungle with Zizyphus oenoplia, Canthium parviflorum and Careya arborea; grazing areas; afforestation areas; agroecosystems; urban areas|
|Location||11°36' to 12°00'N; 76°00' to 77°15'E|
|Transition area(s) when given||70,600|
|Altitude (metres above sea level)||+300 to +2,670|
|Administrative authorities||Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, ( Wildlife ), & Chief Wildlife Warden, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore|
|Last updated: 2/5/2002|