|Biosphere Reserve Information|
GULF OF MANNAR
© Photo: Gulf of Mannar BR
The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 1,050,000 hectares on the south-east coast of India across from Sri Lanka. It is one of the world’s richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective. The biosphere reserve comprises 21 islands with estuaries, beaches, forests of the nearshore environment, including a marine component with algal communities, sea grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. Among the Gulf’s 3,600 plant and animal species are the globally endangered sea cow (Dugong dugon) and six mangrove species endemic to peninsular India.
The inhabitants are mainly Marakeyars, local people principally engaged in fisheries. There are about 47 villages along the coastal part of the biosphere reserve which support some 100,000 people (200,000 seasonally as of 2001). The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has provided support to the establishment of the biosphere reserve, including the setting up and functioning of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust, which is responsible for the coordination of the management plan for the biosphere reserve in concertation with government agencies, private entrepreneurs, and local people’s representatives. Priority is being given to encouraging community-based management.
|Major ecosystem type||Islands including coastal/marine component; coral reefs and mangrove|
|Major habitats & land cover types||Sea grass beds dominated by Hydrocharitaceae and Potamogetonaceae, Halodule uninervis, Cymodocea rotunda, C. serrulata etc.; coral reefs; mangroves including Rhizophora conjugata, Avicennia alba, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera racemosa etc.|
|Location||08°47' to 09°15'N; 78°12' to 79°14'E|
|Transition area(s) when given|
|Altitude (metres above sea level)|
|Administrative authorities||The Chief Conservation of forests (Wild life), and the principal Chief Conservator of forests, Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Chennai|
|Last updated: 27/09/2001|