|Biosphere Reserve Information|
This biosphere reserve covers 1,476,300 hectares of the Serengeti National Park and 828,800 hectares of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in the north of Tanzania. The plains of the Serengeti are mostly formed by crystalline rocks overlaid by volcanic ash with numerous rock outcrops (kopjes). The open plain raises up to the crater highlands comprising the volcanic massifs with up to 3,587 meters above sea level. The Ngorongoro crater is a giant caldera some 16-19 km in diameter with the floor lying 400–600 meters below the rim.
A variable climate and divers landforms have resulted in several distinct habitats. Serengeti’s undulating plains are covered in grass but turn almost to desert during periods of severe drought. Some woodlands are found along the rivers. More elevated areas are covered by scrub, heath and remains of the montane forest, notably on the upper slopes within the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.
The Serengeti and Ngorongoro regions are known for their vast herds of ungulates which migrate following the water supply. Most common are the Thomson’s gazelle (Gazella thomsoni), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), zebra (Equus burchelli), Grant’s gazelle (Gazella granti) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer). The accompanying predators include lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jackal (Canis aureus, C. adustus) and wild dog (Lycaon pictus). There is a noteworthy black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) population.
Ngorongoro is interesting from an archaeological perspective since many fossil remains, including those of early hominids, which makes it to one of the major areas in the world for research on the evolution of the human species. The area is therefore also inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Ngorongoro Conservation Area has been used by man for hunting and pastures for a long time. Maasai still use parts of the region for livestock raising, leading to the overgrazing in some areas. Poaching is a serious problem in the biosphere reserve, while anti-poaching activities are hampered by lack of fuel and equipment. Serengeti has been a centre for research over the last decades.
|Major ecosystem type||Tropical grasslands and savanna|
|Major habitats & land cover types||Open grassland plains dominated by couch grass (Digitaria macroblephara) and Sporobolus marginatus; Acacia woodland savanna; gallery forest; lowland woodlands with Commiphora spp., Acacia drepanolobium and A. gerrardii; upland woodlands with A. lahai and A. seyal|
|Location||01°30' to 03°20'S; 34°00' to 35°15'E|
|Core area(s)||2,305,100 (of which Ngorongoro Conservation Area: 828,800 and Serengeti National Park: 1,476,300)|
|Transition area(s) when given|
|Altitude (metres above sea level)||+920 to +1,850|
|Administrative authorities||Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) and Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) Authority|
|Last updated: 3/14/2005|