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      Biosphere Reserve Information



  Brief description   The zonation has been established according to the Seville Strategy, using the following criteria: existing species and diversity; possible threatened or protected species; endemism; complexity of vegetal formations, habitats and ecosystems; degree of naturalness or conservation of habitats in relation to human activities; singularity or peculiarity of the area; fragility and capacity to recover; and protected areas. The combination of the different criteria determined the current zonation. The core areas have the required surface to conserve biodiversity, since they include most of the habitats of special interest. They partially coincide with livestock activities. The buffer zones surround the core areas, serving as a protection against the more intensive practices in the transition areas. The transition areas include human settlements, intensive practices, and areas of mining extraction.

Projects related to low-cost residual water treatment systems; Investigations of fauna and flora to apply a suitable management of natural resources; Studies for the elaboration of a management plan for forest resources; Implementation of the conservation plan of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and revision of the recovery plan of the brown bear; Study of high-mountain pasture lands and the roads accessing these areas.
  Specific variables...    
  Abiotic   Abiotic factors, acidic deposition/acid rain, air quality, air temperature, climate, contaminants, erosion, geology, geomorphology, glaciology, groundwater, habitat, hydrology, indicators, meteorology, modelling, monitoring/methodologies, nutrients, pollution, pollutants, soil, speleology, topography, uv radiation/solar radiation.
  Biodiversity   Afforestation/Reforestation, amphibians, autoecology/synecology, biodiversity, biogeography, biology, birds, breeding/reproduction, community studies/communities, conservation, degraded areas, ecology, ecosystem assessment, ecosystem functioning/ecosystem structure, ecotone, endemic species, ethology, evolutionary studies/palaeoecology/evolution, fauna, fires/fire ecology, fishes, flora, forest systems, freshwater/inland water, fungi, home gardens, indicators, invertebrates/insects/spiders, lichens, mammals, mediterranean type/scherophyll, microorganisms, migrating populations/migration, monitoring/methodologies, mountain and highland systems, natural medicinal products, natural resources, perturbations/resilience/vulnerability, pests/diseases, phytosociology/succession, plants, pollination, population genetics/population dynamics, productivity, rare/endangered/threatened species, reintroduction, reptiles, restoration/rehabilitation/redevelopment, species inventorying/inventory, vegetation studies/plant cover, wetlands, wildlife.
  Socio-economic   Agriculture/Production systems, agroforestry, anthropological studies/anthropology, archaeology/paleontology, capacity building, control and monitoring of illegal activities, cottage industry/artisanal industry, cultural aspects, demography, economic studies, economically important species, energy production systems/alternative energy, firewood cutting/harvesting, fishery/fisheries, forestry, human health, human migration/population exodus, human/wildlife conflicts, hunting, indicators, indicators of sustainability, indigenous people, industry, livelihood measures, livestock and related impacts/overgrazing, local participation, mining, monitoring methodologies, natural hazards, non-timber forest products/ntfp, pastoralism/pastoralists/grazing, people-nature relations/man/nature, quality economies, recreation, resource use, role of women/gender, sacred sites, small business initiatives, social/socio-economic aspects, stakeholders' interests, tourism, traditional practices/ethnology/traditional knowledge, transport.
  Integrated monitoring   Carrying capacity/Sustainability, conflict, ecosystem approach, education and public awareness, environmental change, environmental quality, geographic information system/gis, impact and risk studies/environmental impact, indicators, infrastructure, institutional and legal aspects, integrated studies/interdisciplinaty, interdisciplinary studies, land tenure, land use/land cover, landscape inventorying/monitoring, management issues, mapping, policy issues, rural systems, sustainable development/sustainable use, urban systems/towns/cities, watershed studies/monitoring.

Last updated: 06/06/2006

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