are in the MOST Phase I website (1994-2003).
The MOST Phase II website is available at: www.unesco.org/shs/most.
|Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge||MOST/CIRAN|
Participatory Animal Health Programme and Ethnoveterinary Development ProgrammeDESCRIPTION
Although these two programmes are separately funded and each have their own team leader, reporting requirements and time lines, they are essentially two branches of the same programme. The programme as a whole was set up to promote livestock activities and to record and make use of ethnoveterinary practices to help increase household incomes. Maasai pastoralists have conserved the rangelands and wildlife of Northern Tanzania for the past 150 years, but they are now losing grazing land as a result of crop farmers from other areas encroaching upon their land. Combined with an expanding human population, the increased density of livestock has led to problems with diseases which traditional strategies are unable to cope with. As a consequence, the traditional pastoral economy of the region is under threat of collapse.
The Participatory Animal Health Care Programme trains community animal health workers (CAHWs), while the Ethnoveterinary Programme gathers ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK). The most transferable EVK is used in the training of CAHWs. Every practice must be evaluated before it can be transferred. Some practices will not be transferred, even if they are known to work, perhaps because of animal welfare considerations (e.g. firing, branding, castration using stones). Others may not be transferred because they were found not to be useful for validation, or because the plant required for the treatment is hard to find. The community animal health workers are chosen by their community to be trained in animal health practices. There are several criteria for choosing who is to be trained. The main criteria are literacy, youth, membership of the community and a commitment to stay in the area. Prior EVK experience is useful but not necessary, as the community adds traditional training in animal health to the conventional CAHW training.
Ethnoveterinary knowledge is used to treat livestock and prevent disease. It can sometimes be more effective than orthodox drugs and is a useful stopgap when drugs are not available.
Economic sustainability: low inputs of drugs, cost-effective
Environmental sustainability: use of natural medicine
Other types of sustainability: preserving ethnoveterinary knowledge
STAKEHOLDERS AND BENEFICIARIES
The main stakeholders and beneficiaries are community members and NGOs. The programme was initiated by Vetaid Tanzania. The community chooses CAHWs and provides them with EVK, while the trainers provide conventional veterinary training. There are between 1000 and 5000 stakeholders and beneficiaries involved.
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES
The programme doubles the capacity of community animal health workers to treat livestock, as they can make use of both conventional medicine and IK.
It provides an integrated approach to livestock health care that is sustainable economically, environmentally and culturally.
SUCCESS EXPRESSED IN QUALITATIVE OR QUANTITATIVE TERMS:
Since the programmes are only just into their second year, it is not yet possible to say whether income has increased. However we do already know that herders have benefited from community animal health workers. In addition, ethnoveterinary practices have been recorded and are ready to be analyzed so that they can be validated and used in community animal health training.
POTENTIAL FOR REPLICATION
It is quite easy to transfer the practice, although some adaptations might be necessary.
Similar programmes are being considered by IT Kenia and other livestock development NGOs such as Veterinaires Sans Frontières-Europa.
Some of this project information is taken from the VETAID projects website at: http://www.vetaid.org/ under ‘projects’ and then under ‘Tanzania’.
SOURCES OF FUNDING:
Organization that provided this information:
To MOST Clearing House Best Practices on Poverty and Social Exclusion
To MOST/CIRAN Database of Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge
To MOST Clearing House Homepage