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Ireland

Constitution as adopted on 1 July 1937.

Article 8

    1. The Irish language as the national language is the first official language.

    2. The English language is recognised as a second official language.

    3. Provision may, however, be made by law for the exclusive use of either of the said languages for any one or more official purposes, either throughout the state or in any part thereof.

Article 18

    7. Before each general election of the members of the Seanad Eireann to be elected from panels of candidates, five panels of candidates shall be formed in the manner provided by law containing respectively the names of persons having knowledge and practical experience of the following interests and services, namely:
      (i) national language and culture, literature, art, education and such professional interests as may be defined by law for the purpose of this panel;

Article 25

    4. (3) Every bill shall be signed by the President in the text in which it was passed or deemed to have been passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas, and if a bill is so passed or deemed to have been passed in both the official languages, the President shall sign the text of the bill in each of those languages.
    (4) Where the President signs the text of a bill in one only of the official languages, an official translation shall be issued in the other official language.
    (5) As soon as may be after the signature and promulgation of a bill as a law, the text of such law which was signed by the President or, where the President has signed the text of such law in each of the official languages, both the signed texts shall be enrolled for record in the office of the Registrar of the Supreme Court and the text, or both texts, so enrolled shall be conclusive evidence of the provisions of such law.
    (6) In case of conflict between the texts of a law enrolled under this section in both the official languages, the text in the national language shall prevail...

    5. (1) It shall be lawful for the Taoiseach, from time to time as occasion appears to him to require, to cause to be prepared under his supervision a text, in both official languages, of this Constitution as then in force embodying all amendments theretofore made therein...
    (4) In case of conflict between the texts of any copy of this Constitution enrolled under this section, the text in the national language shall prevail.

Note: The complete text of the Constitution and further information on the constitutional background of Ireland are provided by the International Constitutional Law Project at the University of Bern.


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