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Constitution as adopted on 16 September 1963.

Article 44

    2. A person shall be qualified to be elected as a member of Parliament, if:
      (e) he is able, with a degree of proficiency sufficient to enable him to take an active part in the proceedings of Parliament, to speak and, unless incapacitated by blindness or other physical cause, to read and write at least one of the following languages, that is to say English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil;

Article 53

    Until the Legislature otherwise provides, all debates and discussions in Parliament shall be conducted in Malay, English, Mandarin or Tamil.

Article 127

    1. Subject to clause 4, the government may, upon application made by any person of, or over the age of, twenty-one years who is not a citizen of Singapore, grant a certificate of naturalisation to that person if the government is satisfied...
      (c) that he has an adequate knowledge of the national language.

Article 152

    2. The government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognise the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interests in the Malay language.

Note: The complete text of the Constitution and further information on the constitutional background of Singapore are provided by the International Constitutional Law Project at the University of Bern.

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