UNESCO Social and Human Sciences
 
You are in the MOST Phase I website (1994-2003).
The MOST Phase II website is available at: www.unesco.org/shs/most.
 


 

UNESCO-MOST programme
MOST Monograph Series on Social Transformations
Volume 1

History and Observation of Social Transformations (1)
International Network

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE DIFFERENTIATION OF GROWTH PATTERNS

A comparative historical analysis of industrialisation patterns in Algeria, Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam



The research network entitled 'History and Observation of Social Transformations' (HOST ), is underpinned by six national research teams and one co-ordinating team located in France. Each team comprises high-level researchers, involved in university teaching, and decision-makers concerned with development policies and operations.

Argentina: The team is based at the Centro de Investigación Sobre el Estado y la Administración (CISEA), Buenos Aires. Official in charge: Jorge Schvarzer.

Bolivia: The team is based at the Instituto Latino-Americano de Desarrollo y de Investigación Social (ILDIS), La Paz. Official in charge: Julio Prudencio.

Benin: The team is based at the Faculté des sciences agronomiques of the University of Bénin, Cotonou. Official in charge: Gauthier Biaou.

Madagascar: The team is based at the Centre national de la recherche sur l'environnement of the Ministry for Research and of the University of Antananarivo. Official in charge: Ramisandrazana Rakotoariseheno.

Thailand: The team is based at the Universities of Chulalongkorn, Thamassat and Kasetsart, Bangkok. Official in charge: Kanoksak Kaewthep.

Vietnam: The team is based at the National Centre for Social and Human Sciences and Economic Problems Review, Hanoi. Official in charge: Bui Huy Khoat.

France: Multi-institutional co-ordinating team involving ORSTOM, INRA and universities. Officials in charge: Alain Mounier (ORSTOM, Bangkok), Pascal Byé (INRA, Montpellier), and André Rosanvallon (IREP.D, CNRS, Université Pierre-Mendès France, Grenoble). The scientific secretariat is provided by Ariel Meunier (INRA).


    CONTENTS

    Preface Ali Kazancigil

    Foreword Pascal Byé

    Introduction Pascal Byé and Alain Mounier


    Part 1 Long-term patterns of growth

    Paradoxes of Argentine (under) development
    J. Schvartzer

    Bolivia: Patterns of growth (1870-1994)
    J. Prudencio Bohrt and J.A. Pérez

    Forms and phases of Thai industrialization in a historical perspective
    Alain Mounier, K. Kaewthep, V. Charoenloet

    The main characteristics of the socio-economic development of Vietnam from the mid-nineteenth century to the present
    Bui Huy Khoat


    Part 2 Elements for an assessment

    The course of long-term economic growth in Algeria (1900-1994)
    H.A. Amara

    Benin: Agricultural production or international trade A suggested reading of the situation
    HOST Benin team (A. Adégbidi, V. Agbo, J. d'Almeida, L. Assogba, G. Biaou) and P. Byé

    Residues of tradition in the economic crisis of Madagascar A suggested reading situation
    HOST Madagascar team (R. Rakotohariseheno, R. Ramahatra) and A. Meunier

    Turkey's long journey to the 'Wealth of Nations'
    S. Kancal


The present volume is the first set of research results produced by the international research network HOST. This network is based on partnership with an equal distribution of tasks and leadership in each participating institution within the network. The HOST network brings together interdisciplinary research teams from Algeria, Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam,. Together the teams elaborate the comparative framework for their research, and the theoretical, methodological and policy relevant dimensions of the work to be undertaken.

The HOST network and its research and training activities are part of the UNESCO-MOST Programme, an international social science research programme engaged in strengthening networks, promoting comparative and policy relevant research projects and pulling together the efforts of research teams scattered across the globe in tackling the prominent social policy issues of our time. The aim of MOST is to support projects that lay down the baseboard of information and knowledge from which effective policies can be devised. The MOST Programme operates in three areas: multicultural and multi-ethnic societies; Cities and urbanization; and, Globalization and its local impacts.

This project focuses on explaining and comprehending the economic, social, political and cultural development of the participating countries, in the context of conflicting and complex pressures exerted by international and global forces from above, and by national forces and priorities from within. The longitudinal and comparative analysis improves our grasp of the importance and impact of the increasing globalization of industry and markets, and provides a solid knowledge base for designing appropriate development projects and policies for the participating countries.

This volume is the result of the first phase of this five-year project, and is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an overall diagnosis of the aspect of the economic and social change that inspired and oriented the past three decades of development strategies of the participating countries. The focus is on describing the core variables over a lengthy period of time to determine the relations and movement between industrialisation and agriculture. The authors then examine the role played by the international environment on the dynamics between agriculture and industrialisation, the degree of exclusion or dependence of countries, and the influence of external trade on the pace and type of industrialisation process. These analyses involve Algeria, Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam.

Part 2 is an Orientation Note that investigates whether accepted economic and development theories offer pertinent and adequate theoretical tools for explaining the congregation of industrialisation toward new spaces, a phenomenon multiplying the number of countries qualifying today as Newly Industrialised Countries. The authors critically analyse the work done by the World Bank, in particular the substantial report The East Asian Miracle (Oxford University Press, 1993) which espouses growth theories first developed by Viner to explain successful development strategies oriented towards the world market, and which oppose the failure of Industrialisation Substitution Imports (ISI) in Latin America with the successful policies of Export Oriented Industrialisation adopted by the South East Asian countries.

By underscoring the importance of a historical analysis of the development process, the authors illustrate the lacunas in the argumentation advanced by the Bank and suggest another theoretical and conceptual framework. More generally, the authors note that development theories and models designed to read and interpret change, paradoxically remain 'a-historical', being only slightly oriented to the comprehension of long-term economic and social mutations.

Preliminary field analyses have also been produced by the HOST Network for the Foundation for Human Progress, which, along with UNESCO, helps support their work. The worksheets edited by Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand and Vietnam will be added to the "Dialogue for Human Progess" database that is managed by this Foundation. One of the objectives of HOST is to prepare the ground for local surveys aimed at monitoring social transformations. The worksheets presented are computerized documents processed with UNESCO's ISIS software and synthesize the first observations made about the transformation of social systems. The worksheets can be used to present a case, a concrete experience, as well as the main teachings in a book, an article, an interview or contributions from grey literature. Topics addressed in the worksheets articulate with the work of the HOST network and include daily life and globalization in rural and urban environments, state actions, family models and the role of women in development, and technical and organizational responses to globalization in rural and urban environments.

The HOST network benefits from the support of the UNESCO-MOST Programme, the Foundation for Human Progress in Paris, France, INRA (The National Institute for Agricultural Research, Paris, France) and ORSTOM (French Institute for Scientific Research for Development Co-operation). This volume offers a good example of the relevance of international co-operative research for development planning that can effectively tackle poverty, and promote social development in tandem with economic progress.


1. HOST has been completed as a MOST Project. It is no longer funded by the MOST Programme.


To MOST Clearing House Homepage