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Estonia - Constitution

Adopted on: 28 June 1992

Article 12 [General Equality, No Discrimination] 

(1) All persons shall be equal before the law. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of nationality, race, color, sex, language, origin, creed, political or other persuasions, financial or social status, or other reasons. 
(2) The propagation of national, racial, religious or political hatred, violence or discrimination is prohibited and punishable by law. The propagation of hatred, violence or discrimination between social strata is equally prohibited and punishable by law.
Article 40 [Freedom of Religion] 
(1) Everyone shall have freedom of conscience, religion and thought. 
(2) Everyone may freely belong to a church or a religious association. There shall be no state church. 
(3) Everyone shall have the freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private to practice his or her religion, unless it endangers public order, health or morals.
Article 42 [Privacy of Religion and Belief] 
No state or local government authority or their officials may collect or store information on the persuasions of any Estonian citizen against his or her free will.
Article 124 [Duty to Service] 
(2) Those who refuse service in the Defense Forces for religious or ethical reasons shall be obligated to participate in alternative service, in accordance with the procedures prescribed by law.
Note: Further information on the constitutional background of Estonia is provided by the International Constitutional Law Project at the University of Wuerzburg. 
 


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