UNESCO Social and Human Sciences
You are in the MOST Phase I website (1994-2003).
The MOST Phase II website is available at: www.unesco.org/shs/most.

Japan - Constitution

Adopted on: 3 Nov 1946 (Document Status: 1994)

Article 14 [No Discrimination and Privileges]

(1) All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic, or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin.
Article 20 [Freedom of Religion, Secularity of the State]
(1) Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all.
(2) No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority.
(3) No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious act, celebration, rite or practice.
(4) The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.
Article 44 [Qualification]
(1) The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law.
(2) However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property, or income.
Article 89 [Secular Budget]
No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit, or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational, or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.
Note: Further information on the constitutional background of Japan is provided by the International Constitutional Law Project at the University of Wuerzburg. 

To MOST Clearing House Homepage