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The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Constitution

Adopted on: 17 Nov 1991 (Document Status: 1992)

Article 9 

(1) Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia are equal in their freedoms and rights, regardless of sex, race, color of skin, national and social origin, political and religious beliefs, property and social status.
Article 19 
(1) The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. 
(2) The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others is guaranteed. 
(3) The Macedonian Orthodox Church and other religious communities and groups are free to establish schools and other social and charitable institutions, by ways of a procedure regulated by law.
Article 20 
(1) Citizens are guaranteed freedom of association to exercise and protect their political, economic, social, cultural and other rights and convictions. 
(3) The programs and activities of political parties and other associations of citizens may not be directed at the violent destruction of the constitutional order of the Republic, or at encouragement or incitement to military aggression or ethnic, racial or religious hatred or intolerance.
Article 48 
(2) The Republic guarantees the protection of the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of the nationalities.
Article 54 
(3) The restriction of freedoms and rights cannot discriminate on grounds of sex, race, color of skin, language, religion, national or social origin, property or social status. 
(4) The restriction of freedoms and rights cannot be applied to the right to life, the interdiction of torture, inhuman and humiliating conduct and punishment, the legal determination of punishable offenses and sentences, as well as to the freedom of personal conviction, conscience, thought and religious confession.
Article 110 
The Constitutional Court of Macedonia. 
- decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; 
- decides on the conformity of collective agreements and other regulations with the Constitution and laws; 
- protects the freedoms and rights of the individual and citizen relating to the freedom of communication, conscience, thought and activity as well as to the prohibition of discrimination among citizens on the grounds of sex, race, religion or national, social or political affiliation; 
- decides on conflicts of competency among holders of legislative, executive and judicial offices; 
- decides on conflicts of competency among Republic bodies and units of local self-government; 
- decides on the answerability of the programs and status of political parties and associations of citizens; and 
- decides on other issues determined by the Constitution. 
Note: Further information on the constitutional background of Macedonia is provided by the International Constitutional Law Project at the University of Wuerzburg. 
 


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