The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - Constitution
Adopted on: 17 Nov 1991 (Document Status: 1992)
(1) Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia are equal in their
freedoms and rights, regardless of sex, race, color of skin, national and
social origin, political and religious beliefs, property and social status.
(1) The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed.
(2) The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually
or with others is guaranteed.
(3) The Macedonian Orthodox Church and other religious communities
and groups are free to establish schools and other social and charitable
institutions, by ways of a procedure regulated by law.
(1) Citizens are guaranteed freedom of association to exercise
and protect their political, economic, social, cultural and other rights
(3) The programs and activities of political parties and other associations
of citizens may not be directed at the violent destruction of the constitutional
order of the Republic, or at encouragement or incitement to military aggression
or ethnic, racial or religious hatred or intolerance.
(2) The Republic guarantees the protection of the ethnic, cultural,
linguistic and religious identity of the nationalities.
(3) The restriction of freedoms and rights cannot discriminate
on grounds of sex, race, color of skin, language, religion, national or
social origin, property or social status.
(4) The restriction of freedoms and rights cannot be applied to the
right to life, the interdiction of torture, inhuman and humiliating conduct
and punishment, the legal determination of punishable offenses and sentences,
as well as to the freedom of personal conviction, conscience, thought and
The Constitutional Court of Macedonia.
Note: Further information on the constitutional
background of Macedonia is provided by the International Constitutional
Law Project at the University of Wuerzburg.
- decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution;
- decides on the conformity of collective agreements and other regulations
with the Constitution and laws;
- protects the freedoms and rights of the individual and citizen relating
to the freedom of communication, conscience, thought and activity as well
as to the prohibition of discrimination among citizens on the grounds of
sex, race, religion or national, social or political affiliation;
- decides on conflicts of competency among holders of legislative,
executive and judicial offices;
- decides on conflicts of competency among Republic bodies and units
of local self-government;
- decides on the answerability of the programs and status of political
parties and associations of citizens; and
- decides on other issues determined by the Constitution.