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Management of Social Transformations - MOST

MEETING OF EXPERTS ON WOMEN IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR

United Nations Centre

Gigiri, Kenya

25-27 September 1995

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNEX 1. Programme of work

ANNEX 2. List of participants


Summary

This document provides a synthesis of the main discussions and recommendations of the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector organized by UNESCO at United Nations Centre at Gigiri, near Nairobi, Kenya, on 25-27 September 1995. The meeting was attended by a small group of experts from a number of UNESCO Member States.

Overview

1. The informal sector has acquired great significance over the years as a source of employment and livelihoods for an increasing number of people, especially women, in both rural and urban areas of the developing world. It has particularly become a key mechanism for distributing goods and services to the urban poor.

2. According to the ILO, the informal sector is made up of very small-scale units producing and distributing goods and services and owned and operated by largely independent, self employed producers employing family labour or a few hired workers and apprentices. Informal sector enterprises are extremely diverse and are to be found in great numbers in all the main economic sectors, most of all in trade and services but also in manufacturing, construction, transport and urban agriculture. They operate with very little capital, or none at all, and utilise a low level of technology and skills. Employment in these enterprises is highly unstable and incomes are generally very low and irregular.

3. It is important to note also that in many developing countries, the informal sector is often equated with 'parallel' or 'black' market activities, hence looked down upon by society. Consequently, public policy towards the informal sector is as ambivalent as it is contradictory - usually oscillating between benign neglect to periodic harassment. The prevailing attitude of officials seems to be given sanction by the range of activities that are seen to constitute what is popularly, and sometimes, pejoratively, referred to as informal sector activities: from home-based petty trade, commodity production or provision of services by poor women to similarly home-based highly-paid work by professional consultants; from 'recycling' waste and living off the refuse of others to hawking to trafficking in illicit goods to commercial sex work ('entertainment industry').

4. The involvement of large numbers of women in the so-called 'informal sector' is a result of their low status in society and denial of opportunities in the formal sphere of employment. Women's low status is evidenced by their subordinate roles both at home and at the workplace. Within the formal sector, for example, women have fewer employment opportunities, lower wages and less job security than men. Moreover, women also occupy multiple roles. Many urban women, for example, work a full day either in wage-employment or in the informal sector and then return home to long hours of domestic labour. Women and girls who leave the rural areas in search of opportunities in urban areas tend to find employment in the least paid, least skilled jobs, which often offer little legal protection, such as domestic work (the biggest employer of women in many developing countries) or work in the informal sector.

Objectives and expected outcomes of the meeting

5. The UNESCO Sector of Social and Human Sciences has supported a number of activities on women in the informal sector over the years. The declared purpose of these activities has been to gather and disseminate empirical data on the nature and magnitude of women's economic activities in this domain in order to make "more visible" to policymakers and to society in general the phenomenal contribution that women make to the national economies of their countries. A number of reports and proceedings of meetings and research have been published in recent years.

6. A general objective of this Meeting of Experts was to examine UNESCO's continuing action in favour of women in the informal sector and to suggest new areas of endeavour (see Annex 1 for the Programme of Work). More specifically, the group of experts were asked to address a number of important policy questions:

7. In organising a Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector, it had been the intention of the Sector of Social and Human Sciences to involve a small group of senior scholars (largely women) from the different regions of the developing world in order to provide UNESCO with pertinent perspectives on women's activities in the informal sector across the different regions of the developing world. However, due to budgetary constraints, as well as this meeting's proximity to the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women (Beijing, 4-15 September 1995), the number of those who could attend was greatly restricted. Consequently, the majority of the participants were African scholars (from West, East and Southern Africa). There only two scholars from the other regions (Latin America, Argentina; and North America, USA). Four UNESCO Staff members, from Field Offices and Headquarters, were able to attend the meeting: Mr. P. Vitta, Director of the UNESCO Office in Nairobi; Mr. T. Ngakoutou, Regional Adviser for Social and Human Sciences in Africa, Dakar, Senegal; Ms. C. Marias, Sub-Regional Adviser for Social and Human Sciences, Windhoek, Namibia; and Mr. J. Nkinyangi, Sector of Social and Human Sciences, Paris (see Annex 2 for the List of Participants).

8. A general evaluation undertaken at the conclusion of the Final Session suggested that the overall objectives of the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector were fulfilled to a large measure (see Annex 3 for the instrument used for this purpose) (see also the section on General Evaluation later in this Synthetic Report for more details). A number of papers of a high quality were presented; some of these might be published under the MOST Discussion Paper Series for wider dissemination by UNESCO. Useful suggestions and recommendations were made for possible follow-up action by UNESCO.

Synopsis of presentations and discussion

9. There were two introductory statements. Mr. Vitta gave a welcome speech emphasizing the importance of the meeting and Mr. Nkinyangi, the Programme Specialist responsible for the meeting, a detailed presentation aimed at providing a perspective on the issues and concerns before the meeting.

10. Mr. Nkinyangi's presentation attempted to locate UNESCO's work in favour of women in the informal sector in the wider framework of its action on the gender question: elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; the effective recognition of equality between men and women; and the promotion of full participation by women in all aspects of the political, economic, social and cultural life in their societies. Mr. Nkinyangi observed that UNESCO's noble aims had been further reinforced by the Declaration and Platform for Action approved by the United Nations Conference on Women in Beijing, which, among other things, had called for measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girls and remove all obstacles to gender equality; ensure women's equal access to economic resources including land and credit; help empower and advance women; and prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls. Mr. Nkinyangi then highlighted a number of policy issues on the assumed potential and limitations of the informal sector as a source of employment and livelihoods for poor women in developing countries. [Later, most of the other meeting participants elaborated on this theme as well.] [A copy of Mr. Nkinyangi's paper is available on file.]

11. Considerable time was devoted to an in-depth discussion of the objectives of the meeting. Thereafter, sessions were organized around invited keynote papers, with a focus on regional and country perspectives, followed by in-depth discussion.

On the potential and limitations of the informal sector

12. Small-scale enterprises including informal sector activities are an important and growing source of employment in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where, according to the ILO, they provide the bulk of urban employment (61 per cent of the urban labour force), and are second only to smallholder agriculture as a rural employer. Nevertheless, it is also appropriate to indicate that in the developing countries, the informal sector has developed in the context of an unemployed and underemployed population where little or no social support has existed, particularly for poor women. In Latin America, for example, where large numbers of women find employment in the informal sector, data in the presentation by Dr. Maria del Carmen Feijoo (Argentina) pointed to the coincidence between industrialisation and urbanisation in the countries of the Southern Cone and the “feminisation” of the workforce in the “services sector” (including traditional women's roles in domestic service provision).

13. In Eastern Africa, according to illustrative data for Kenya in the presentation by Dr. Dorothy McCormick (USA) and Dr. Winnie Mitullah (Kenya), the majority of informal sector enterprises (60 percent) are in trade, with over three-quarters located in the rural areas, and slightly more than a half of them (54 percent) being owned by men. Dr. McCormick and Dr. Mitullah noted that enterprises run by women tend to be smaller, to have less capital, to be involved in less lucrative activities and to be home-based (because of the pressure of domestic responsibilities on women). Women entrepreneurs were also found to be less educated than men entrepreneurs and to have fewer skills. Moreover, women seem to have chosen their trade “by accident”. Women also seem to prefer diversifying into new areas than expanding their present business, thus, making themselves more susceptible to risk than men traders who seem to prefer augmenting their present business instead of venturing into new domains.

14. Dr. Renay Weiner (South Africa) observed that the historical repression of the informal sector in South Africa, along with strict influx control policies, have shaped both the nature of activities as well as development of the informal sector in the urban areas, thus tending to influence the concentration of women in certain activities: hawking; petty trade; commercial sex work; and 'shebeening' (home-based trade in alcohol, entertainment, etc.). Dr. Weiner noted that more recently, the informal sector has been promoted through deregulation. Presently, it is estimated that 25-30 percent of the South African workforce is presently employed in informal sector activities. However, she noted that these figures could well underestimate the importance of the informal sector in South Africa where, during the long years of apartheid, opportunities for employment for the majority of the Black population were severely circumscribed.

15. Recent estimates suggest that informal sector activities contributed 5.1 per cent to GDP in 1985 and continue to play an important role in the economy of the new South Africa. Regional specificities are also important. For example, in a study conducted in Kwa-Zulu Natal province, 60 percent of the households were found to draw on both formal and informal sector sources of income. According to Dr. Weiner, this appears to support the notion that, for poor households, informal sector activity is a measure of the last resort - almost an act of desperation - while for some relatively more endowed ones, it may be a means of supplementing the incomes of those in the formal sector of employment.

16. Nevertheless, in South Africa, as in other developing countries, it has been found that women are still less likely than men to be involved in production work and that their activities in the informal sector tend to locked in traditional women's roles (such as weaving, knitting and sewing, and craft work). With reference to South Africa, Dr. Weiner remarked that, compared to most formal jobs, informal sector occupations expose women to extremely harsh conditions for very limited rewards.

17. The introductory presentation by Mr. Nkinyangi (UNESCO, Paris) as well as the remarks of the majority of the meeting participants noted the supposed potential of the informal sector. A considerable body of literature also extols these benefits and the litany of what these enterprises can achieve is almost proverbial:

18. In spite of the long catalogue above, the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector observed that the potential for the informal sector to generate more employment and incomes under the prevailing social and economic conditions has been somewhat exaggerated. To illustrate this point, reference was made, for example, to the recent African Ministers Conference of the ILO (Mauritius, January 1994) where Workers' delegates had complained that the ILO's strategy of promoting small-scale enterprises as a model of development for the less industrial countries tended to ignore the available evidence - which suggests that in Africa, as in other regions of the developing world, the informal sector has progressively outreached its absorptive capacity. It was noted that, for Africa, for example, findings from a number of ILO's own sponsored projects including JASPA (Jobs and Skills Promotion in Africa) had already indicated that this saturation point had been reached some years ago. The ILO was also accused of ignoring a popular view that employment in the informal sector is synonymous with living in poverty - that is, to being socially excluded and marginalized. A number of agencies including the ILO and World Bank were said to have over-popularized the notion of the informal sector.

19. In spite of the popularization of the informal sector, a contradictory situation prevails. On the one hand, existing social attitudes tend to look down upon informal sector activities, on the other hand, these attitudes seem to be buttressed by an ambivalent public policy. The result is a policy framework that is largely ambiguous in its support for informal sector activities: This is clearly demonstrated by:

20. The absence of a policy-enabling environment consequently contributes or accentuates the formidable problems that entrepreneurs in informal sector enterprises are usually confronted:

21. The participants noted that the Meeting of Experts had addressed well the point that both Governments and donor agencies have a poor knowledge of the potentials of the informal sector. More serious efforts had therefore to be made to educate them in this regard and that good social science research could contribute to effective policymaking on the informal sector. They emphasized that more research was particularly needed on the regulatory behaviour of Government.

The poor and structural adjustment policies

22. As economic conditions in many developing countries have deteriorated, unemployment levels have risen and the numbers of the poor have increased dramatically. Consequently, access to basic needs and services by disadvantaged groups has become even more tenuous. By the late 1980's, for example, it was estimated that less than 50 per cent of the population in some 16 African countries had access to medical care. FAO data show that the average calorie availability per capita per day in 1985 was below the 1969-71 level and that malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa had risen by 22-26 per cent during the same period. In the education sphere, UNESCO data have shown that the impact of structural adjustment policies on education has been considerable, especially along gender lines. During the 1980's, for example, there was a noted reduction or “slowing down” in female participation rates as well as changes in the gender composition of the teaching corps. Enrolment ratios in primary education declined especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of Latin America and Asia.

23. Structural adjustment policies seem to have had a somewhat different, and even more pronounced, impact on women than men. As the prospects for salaried employment in commerce, industry and government service tended to diminish while the entry level requirements for new jobs rose, even women with educational credentials experienced great difficulty finding jobs. Moreover, in the rural areas, women, who are often the main breadwinner for their family, suffered from reduced real incomes due to depressed agricultural prices. As a consequence of these trends, therefore, considerable numbers of women find growing opportunities for employment in so-called informal sector activities.

24. Poor individuals and households in developing countries suffer as a result of structural adjustment policies because the population does not have “social security” measures (like in most industrial countries) to protect it during situations of hardship. [In industrial societies, a series of public measures exist to cushion members of the population against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction of earnings (resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and death), and to provide medical care and subsidies for families with children.] In the developing countries, however, this form of social security relates principally to the development of institutionalized security for "formal sector" wage-earners only.

25. Interventions suggested by Governments and donor agencies in the wake of social and economic difficulties posed by structural adjustment policies are intended to extend access to a wide range of social provisions relating to basic needs - that is, to providing a kind of "safety net" (in such areas as basic education, primary health care, subsidized food supplies, affordable housing, public employment programmes, etc.). However, although such actions are meant to benefit the vast majority of the people of the developing countries as well as to have wider social and economic implications than is suggested by the narrow notion of “social security” covering mainly people in salaried employment, the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector was doubtful whether “those living at the periphery of society” had benefitted from such provisions to the extent often assumed by Government officials and donor agencies.

26. The preceding discussion and analysis has indicated that in the developing countries, the informal sector has developed in the context of an unemployed and underemployed population where little or no social support has existed, particularly for poor women. It has been pointed out how the informal sector has, in fact, become a key mechanism for distributing goods and services especially to the urban poor. However, it has also been noted that compared to most formal jobs, informal sector occupations expose women to extremely harsh conditions for very limited rewards.

Creating a supportive environment for the informal sector

27. The critical situation generated by falling real incomes, the cancellation of food subsidies and the removal of price controls has contributed to increasing numbers of women finding growing "opportunities" for employment in precarious, low-wage service jobs and in the informal sector - where they are likely to be subjected to exploitation, degradation and even physical violence. In many developing countries, there are few legal provisions to protect workers in the informal sector; consequently, there is considerable exploitation of women and young girls especially in domestic service (with some women and girls assuming or acquiring the role of “surrogate” wives or mothers). The Meeting of Experts noted that this problem was extensive in all the regions of the developing world because of women's low status and prevailing social attitudes. Dr. Mitullah (Kenya) suggested that this was particularly the case concerning girls in African countries who get kicked out of school because of pregnancy. [Adolescent pregnancy has been blamed for a quarter to a third of all dropouts in some African countries.] Such girls have no other recourse for a livelihood than the informal sector.

28. A number of participants recommended that adult education and programmes specially designed for “out-of-school” girls should attempt to “recapture” and benefit women and girls in the informal sector. However, it is was also noted that the EFA [Education for All] initiative by UNESCO and a number of other agencies was being designed without much sensitivity to the special needs of women and girls in the informal sector. Moreover, in designing training programmes for women and out-of-school youth (including girls), consideration has to be given to the fact that significant numbers of those engaged or contemplating to venture into informal sector enterprises either have no basic education or had the benefit of only a few years of rudimentary primary or secondary education. Hence, the policy agenda of extending access to basic, and if possible, some secondary, education remains central to designing viable and meaningful training programmes for women in the informal sector. Additionally, the Meeting of Experts observed the special problems of devising meaningful training programmes for women in the informal sector remain considerable, because of the long history of discrimination and unequal access of women to different levels of education.

29. The incidence of growing violence against poor women in the rural and urban areas of many developing countries was noted by many participants. Dr. Olawale Albert (Nigeria), Mr. Davinder Lamba (Kenya) and a number of other participants referred to a possible correlation between the growing importance of employment for women in domestic service and the increase in the incidence of domestic violence against women and children, particularly in the urban areas of some African countries. They indicated that this is an area that has been largely ignored by social science research and in which UNESCO should take the lead. Dr. Albert gave a number of graphic examples of violence and exploitation against women by husbands and others in Nigerian society including the prevalence of husbands using their wives' earnings to take on new wives. He referred to the somewhat ironic situation where women have great difficulty getting bank loans (a woman cannot act on her own authority, since she is considered a “minor”, and her husband's property) while men can obtain credit more easily, even with their wive's property as collateral, without prior consultation with or the agreement of their spouses, of course.

30. The presentation by Professor Judith Bahemuka (Kenya) on “female-managed households” suggested that there is an increasing number, perhaps a third or more of all African households, that comprise so-called “single-parent families”. Professor Bahemuka said that this was a phenomenon that could be observed in other parts of the developing world as well. She said that this was an area that had been largely ignored by research. Social scientists should particularly be concerned with examining the nature and dynamics of the changing “institution of the family” in differing social and economic contexts and the consequences of these transformations for society.

31. Because of the social mores guiding popular perceptions of “single-parent families”, especially in traditional societies, “women heads of households” were likely to encounter many forms of discrimination including marginalization and outright ostracisation. Professor Bahemuka said the situation was particularly difficult for women with little or no education whose only recourse was the informal sector: running small businesses; engaging in petty trade or hawking; providing accommodation; or participating in the “entertainment industry” (a euphemism for prostitution or commercial sex work). Legal provisions are urgently needed to protect women-headed households and their enterprises in the informal sector (property ownership rights, protection against violence and exploitation, awareness raising on their basic rights, etc.). The presentation by Dr. Weiner (South Africa) had focussed on the “unmet” health needs of women and girls in the informal sector. Dr. Weiner had emphasized that primary health care programmes need to be instituted to protect women in the informal sector against STDs (sexually-transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS) and to respond to their other health needs.

32. Fostering a more supportive environment in favour of women in the informal sector was a recurrent theme of all the Experts. It was said that UNESCO could help to put this matter on the policy agenda of its Member States. A stress was put on a number of measures that could be the focus of Government action:

General evaluation

33. A general evaluation undertaken at the end of the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector suggested that its overall objectives were fulfilled to a large measure (see Annex 3 for the instrument used for the evaluation). The participants noted that although only a small number of experts had been able to attend, and although it was much regrettable that no one from Asia had been able to participate, nevertheless, the presentations and the ensuing discussions had been stimulating and highly relevant. A number of the papers presented were of a high quality. In the words of one expert, although “the concept of the 'informal sector' is or remains foggy,” the participants had, nevertheless, been able to deal with the policy issues concerning women's economic activities in this domain in a serious and forceful manner.

34. The Meeting of Experts concluded that the gathering had addressed some important issues particularly well. Among those mentioned were: the regulatory behaviour of the State; women's rights; governance issues; the social costs of structural adjustment policies; women's access to education, health and other social services; and working conditions of women in the informal sector. Nevertheless, it was also felt that more work was needed on these very same issues, particularly within a comparative analytical frame.

Recommendations and follow-up

35. It was the expectation of the Meeting of Experts on Women in the Informal Sector that some of the papers presented at the gathering would be published in order to contribute to a wider policy debate and action. Consideration will therefore be given to publishing a number of the papers under the MOST Discussion Paper Series for wider dissemination by UNESCO.

36. The preceding summary and analysis has highlighted some useful trajectories for SHS and other Programme Sectors of UNESCO particularly with regard to policy actions to redress the further marginalization of women in the informal sector. Specific areas in which SHS might consider encouraging some comparative policy analyses are:

37. Concerning the overall framework of any future UNESCO work on women in the informal sector, both the expert discussion at this meeting as well as the relevant literature in this domain suggest that activities of women in the informal sector cannot be examined in isolation of those of other key actors with whom women are sometimes in competition including men and children. Moreover, women's roles and contributions including activities in the informal sector need to be situated within an appropriate analytical frame.

38. UNESCO should encourage a “gender analysis” much more forcefully, since a shift from a “women-in-development” (WID) to a “gender-in-development” (GAD) perspective would have critical implications for planning and programming processes. The WID approach, which has been predominant among Governments and development agencies, has been shown to be both narrow and limited, since it tends to address only the “constraints” and the “special needs” of women while, on the other hand, the GAD approach, identifies “gender-based division of roles and responsibilities in society” (between men and women) and the fundamental implications of this for access to resources, participation and decision-making. A gender analysis, therefore, specifically addresses the need to transform, or remove, the structural imbalances that condition women's development roles and the nature and magnitude of their participation.

John Nkinyangi


ANNEX 1

Programme of work

Sunday, 24 September 1995                      Registration (Hotel
                      Boulevard)
                      Informal meeting, Hotel
                      Boulevard (approx. at 15h00)

Monday, 25 September   
09.30 - 10.30         Opening session
                      Welcome
                      Introductory remarks
                      Mr. P. Vitta, Dir. UNESCO Office, Nairobi
                      Mr. J. Nkinyangi, UNESCO, Paris
                      UNESCO's work on women in
                      the informal sector
11.00 - 11.30         Objectives and expected
                      outcomes of the meeting
11.30 - 12.30         Mr. J. Nkinyangi, UNESCO,
                      Paris
12.30 - 14.30         Break
14.30 - 15.30         Discussion
                      Lunch break
                      Regional and country
15.30 - 15.45         perspectives
15.45 - 16.45         Latin America:
                      Dr. Maria del Carmen Feijoo,
                      Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA
                      Break
                      Regional and country perspectives (cont'd) West Africa:
                      Mr. T. Ngakoutou, UNESCO, Dakar
                      Dr. Olawale Albert, University of Ibadan,
                      Institute of African Studies, Ibadan, NIGERIA

Tuesday, 26 September
09.30 - 10.30         Regional and country perspectives (cont'd)
                      Eastern Africa:
                      Dr. Dorothy McCormick and Dr. Winnie Mitullah,
                      University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, Nairobi, KENYA
10.30 - 10.45         Break
10.45 - 11.45         Regional and country perspectives (cont'd)
                      Eastern Africa: (cont'd)
                      Professor Judith Bahemuka, Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, KENYA
11.45 - 12.45         Southern Africa:
                      Dr. Renay Weiner, National Centre for Occupational Health, Department of National
                      Health and Population Development, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA
12.45 - 14.30         Lunch break
14.30 - 15.30         Issues:
                      Gender and urbanization
                      Mr. Davinder Lamba and Ms. Diana Lee Smith,
                      Mazingira Institute, Nairobi, KENYA
15.30 - 15.45         Break
15.45 - 16.45         Issues:
                      Women and adolescents in the informal sector:
                      Health and other “unmet” needs
                      Dr. Renay Weiner, National Centre for
                      Occupational Health, Department of National
                      Health and Population Development, Johannesburg,
                      SOUTH AFRICA

Wednesday, 27 September                                                      09.30 - 10.30         Issues:
                      Women in the informal sector and the spectre of
                      urban violence
                      Dr. Olawale Albert, University of Ibadan,
                      Institute of African Studies, Ibadan, NIGERIA
10.30 - 10.45         Break
10.45 - 12.45         Issues:
                      Women in the informal sector: Research and policy
                      agendas
                      Mr. J. Nkinyangi, UNESCO, Paris
                      Mr. T. Ngakoutou, UNESCO, Dakar
                      Ms. C. Marias, UNESCO, Windhoek
                      Other issues
                      Discussion
                      CLOSING SESSION


ANNEX 2

List of participants

Dr. Olawale Albert
University of Ibadan
Institute of African Studies
Ibadan, NIGERIA
Fax: +234 (2) 810.40.77

Professor Judith Bahemuka
University of Nairobi
Department of Sociology
P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: +254 (2)

Dr. Maria del Carmen Feijoo
Universidad Nacional de Quilmes
Av. Caseros 450, 2-C
1152 Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA
Fax: +54 (1) 307-1219)

Mr. Davinder Lamba
Executive Director
Mazingira Institute
Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: +254 (2) 444.643 (Phone: 443.219)

Ms. C. Marias
UNESCO Windhoek Office
Sub-Regional Adviser for Social and Human Sciences
Private Bag 24519
Windhoek, NAMIBIA
Fax: 223.651 (Phone: 264-61-200-2140)
E-Mail: Carrie@Marias.alt.na

Dr. Dorothy McCormick
University of Nairobi
Institute for Development Studies
P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: +254 (2) 22.20.36 (Phone: 33.42.44)

Dr. Winnie Mitullah
University of Nairobi
Institute for Development Studies
P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: +254 (2) 22.20.36 (Phone: 33.42.44)

Mr. T. Ngakoutou
Regional Adviser for Social and Human Sciences in Africa
UNESCO Regional Office for Education
12 Av. Roume
P.O. Box 3311
DAKAR, SENEGAL
Fax: (221)238.393 (Phone: (221)235.082
E-Mail: UHTIM

Mr. J. Nkinyangi
UNESCO
Sector of Social and Human Sciences
Division of Social Sciences, Research and Policy
1, rue Miollis
75732 PARIS Cedex 15
FRANCE
Fax: 33(1)40.65.98.71 (Phone: 33(1)45.68.38.37)

Ms. Diana Lee Smith
Mazingira Institute
Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: +254 (2) 444.643 (Phone: 443.219)

Mr. Paul B. Vitta
Director
UNESCO Nairobi Office
P.O. Box 30592
Nairobi, KENYA
Fax: 254(2)215.991 (Phone: 254(2)622.356)
E-Mail: UHVIT

Dr. Renay Weiner
National Centre for Occupational Health
Department of Health
106 Joubert Street Extension
P.O. Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000
SOUTH AFRICA
Fax: +27 (11) 720.66.08; phone: 720.5734


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