Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
Within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the:
- Right to privacy: Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
- Right to freedom of opinion and expression: Article 19 Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965)
The Republic of Honduras acceded to the resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965 adopted by General Assembly on 10 October 2002.
- Article 5: In compliance with the fundamental obligations laid down in article 2 of this Convention, States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the following rights: […](d) Other civil rights, in particular:
[…](viii) The right to freedom of opinion and expression;
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
The resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 adopted by the General Assembly has been signed by the Republic of Honduras on 19 DEcember 1966 and ratified on 25 August 1997.
- Article 19 1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
- Article 20 1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.
American Declaration of the Human Rights and the duties of the Man(1948).
Adopted in 1948 by the Ninth International Conference of American States, in Bogotá, the American Declaration of the Human Rights and the duties of the Man states:
Article IV. Right to freedom of investigation, opinion, expression and dissemination.
“Every person has the right to freedom of investigation, of opinion, and of the expression and dissemination of ideas, by any medium whatsoever.”
American Convention on Human Rights “Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica”
Adopted at the Inter-American Specialized Conference on Human Rights,
San José, Costa Rica, 22 November 1969, the American Convention on Human Rights was signed by the Republic of Honduras on 22 November 1969 and ratified on 05 September 1977 . On 9 September 1981, the Republic of Honduras recognize the juridiction of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
PART I - STATE OBLIGATIONS AND RIGHTS PROTECTED
CHAPTER II - CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and expression. This right includes freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing, in print, in the form of art, or through any other medium of one's choice.
2. The exercise of the right provided for in the foregoing paragraph shall not be subject to prior censorship but shall be subject to subsequent imposition of liability, which shall be expressly established by law to the extent necessary to ensure:
a. respect for the rights or reputations of others; or
b. the protection of national security, public order, or public health or morals.
3. The right of expression may not be restricted by indirect methods or means, such as the abuse of government or private controls over newsprint, radio broadcasting frequencies, or equipment used in the dissemination of information, or by any other means tending to impede the communication and circulation of ideas and opinions.
4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 above, public entertainments may be subject by law to prior censorship for the sole purpose of regulating access to them for the moral protection of childhood and adolescence.
5. Any propaganda for war and any advocacy of national, racial, or religious hatred that constitute incitements to lawless violence or to any other similar action against any person or group of persons on any grounds including those of race, color, religion, language, or national origin shall be considered as offenses punishable by law.
Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression (Washington, DC, October 2000)
The Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression states thirteen articles to protect Freedom of Expression. As read in the website of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: "After an extensive debate with various civil society organizations, the Commission adopted this declaration, based on a proposal prepared for by the then newly established Special Rapporteurship on Freedom of Expression. This Declaration includes principles related to the protection of the right to freedom of expression, in light of the interpretation of Article 13 of the American Convention and international standards. It includes the following principles: the right to seek, receive, and disseminate information and opinions freely; the right of every person to have access to information about himself or herself, or his or her assets, expeditiously and not onerously, whether in public or private records; the stipulation that prior censorship, interference, or direct or indirect pressure that restricts the right to freedom of expression should be prohibited by law; principles related to the plurality and diversity of media; among others."
For more information on the background and Interpretation of the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression, click here
Inter-American Democratic Charter
Adopted by the General Assembly at its special session held in Lima (Peru), the 11 September 2001 the Inter-American Democratic Charter states:
I - Democracy and the Inter-American System
"Transparency in government activities, probity, responsible public administration on the part of governments, respect for social rights, and freedom of expression and of the press are essential components of the exercise of democracy.[…]"
*On July 5, 2009, the Organization of American States (OAS) invoked Article 21 of the Inter-American Democratic Charter, suspending Honduras from active participation in the hemispheric body. The unanimous decision was adopted as a result of the June 28 coup d’état that expelled President José Manuel Zelaya from office. Diplomatic initiatives are ongoing to foster the restoration of democracy to Honduras. (source: OAS)
Principles and Best Practices on the Protection of Persons Deprived of Liberty in the Americas
The Principles and Best Practices on the Protection of Persons Deprived of Liberty in the Americas has been approved by the Inter-American Commission during its 131st regular period of sessions, held from March 3-14, 2008.
Principle XVI - Freedom of expression, association and reunion
"Persons deprived of liberty shall have the right to freedom of expression in their own language, association, and peaceful assembly, subject to the limitations that are strictly necessary in a democratic society to protect the rights of others or public health or morals, and maintain public order, internal security, and discipline in places of deprivation of liberty, as well as subject to other limitations permitted by law and international human rights law."
For more information about the jurisprudence on Freedom of Expression of the inter-American human rights system click here
Terrorism and Freedom of Expression
The following report on Terrorism and Freedom of Expression is part of the Report on Terrorism and Human Rights published by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights on October 22, 2002.
Constitution of Honduras (Translated from Spanish)
DECREE NUMBER NO 131
January 11 1982
PART III: STATEMENTS, RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES
FOR INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
Article 72.- Is free the issuance of the thought by any means of disseminating, without prior censorship. They are responsible to the law that abuse this right and those who, by means direct or indirect restrict or prevent the communication and circulation of ideas and opinions.
ARTICLE 73.- printing, the radio stations electrical, television and other means of emission and dissemination of ideas, as well as all its elements, may not be confiscated or confiscated, nor closed or interrupted their work on the grounds of crime or lack in the issuance of thought, without prejudice to the responsibilities in which it is incurred on these grounds in accordance with the law.
No company dissemination of ideas may receive grants from governments or foreign political parties. The Law will establish the sanction that corresponds to the violation of this precept.
The address of the newspapers print, radio and television, and the intellectual guidance, political and administrative of the same, it will be conducted exclusively by hondurans by birth .
Article 74.- may not be restricted the right of issuing the thought by indirect methods or means, such as the abuse of official controls or individuals of the material used for printing of newspapers; of the frequencies or belongings or apparatus used to disseminate information.
Article 75.- The Law governing the issuance of thought, may establish prior censorship, to protect the ethical and cultural values of society, as well as the rights of persons, especially for children, adolescents and youth.
Other Media Legisation
- Framework Law for the Telecommunications Sector (Ley Marco del Sector de Telecomunicaciones)
- Law of Expression of Thought (Ley de Emision del Pensamiento)
Some restrictive press laws are still used on sensitive issues such as official corruption, drug trafficking, and human rights abuses, despite the fact that the penal code's desacato (disrespect) provision was abolished in 2005. (Freedom House, Freedom of the Press 2010 - Honduras, 30 September 2010)Back to top