Hungary has an active research environment supported by government and Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OKTA). Research takes place through the Hungarian Academy of Sciences which maintains 48 research institutions and also the 71 higher education institutions in the country.

There is an OA organisation, HUNOR. The HUNOR (HUNgarian Open Access Repositories) consortium was established in 2008 by the libraries of Hungarian higher education institutions and the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to advance national open access practices. The members of HUNOR are dedicated to promoting Hungarian research both nationally and internationally and to achieving effective dissemination of scientific outputs through the implementation of a national infrastructure of open access repositories. Other proposed activities include the organization of a methodology centre, adopting international know-how and standards, the establishment of complementary scientific communication channels, and international relations.

As of June 2015, DOAJ indexes 32 OA journals from Hungary. There are 30 OA digital repositories registered in OpenDOAR.

There are currently no OA policies registered in ROARMAP.

Enabling Environment:

Awareness of OA; HUNOR programme of OA promotion; funding mandate by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OKTA); Corvinus University, Hungarian Academicy of Sciences and University of Debrecen is a member of  Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR).

From infrastructural point of view, the OA status is considered fairly good, from the policy side much further efforts are needed, though the mandate of the Academy of Sciences is elaborate and seems to be effective.

For research data the OA situation is dire in the country. For small countries, like Hungary, the significance of EU-level coordination in shaping OA policies is enormous.

Potential Barriers:

Lack of national OA strategy; lack of clarity on copyright/digital rights issues; researchers’ time involved in depositing (Source: OpenAIRE).

Major Projects/Initiatives:

HUNOR (Hungarian Open Repositories) consortium was formed by the higher education institutions and the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to promote OA and offer information on methodology, standards and communication channels.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates:

The Open Access policy of the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund calls for Open Access to the research it funds either through direct publication in Open Access journals or through self-archiving in appropriate subject or institutional repositories, including that of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

On 29-30 October 2015, PASTEUR4OA will organize an Eastern European Meeting of Research Funders and Research Performing Organizations " Working Together to Promote Open Access Policy Alignment in Europe'. The meeting will take place in Budapest.

Funding Mandate

Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the country’s major scientific research funder requires all funded researchers to deposit in an OA repository or publish in an OA journal.

There is also a Thesis mandate vide Government Decree no 33 (7 March 2007) on Doctoral dissertations. 

Details of Key Organizations:

Hungarian Open Repositories (HUNOR)
Overview: Hungarian Open Repositories (HUNOR) is a consortium of libraries in higher education and research to promote OA.

Communication address: HUNOR c/o University of Debrecen and National Library, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem  tés 1, Hungary.

Thematic Open Access projects/Initiatives

January 2014: The Institute for Legal Studies of the Centre for Social Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences started an open access online legal encyclopaedia in order to meet the changes in the practice of scholarly publication.

The project started in January 2014 and it will conclude at the end of 2018 (five years). A vast majority of the encyclopaedia entries will be completed during these five years. Timeline:

January 2014 – June 2014: Invitation to the editorial board.

July 2014 – June 2015: Preparation of the list of encyclopaedia entries by the members of the editorial board; controlling for overlapping entries and their clarification; preparation of the final list of the encyclopaedia entries; invitation of authors; selection of the copyeditor; and development of the encyclopaedia’s webpage.

July 2015 – December 2018: Preparation of the encyclopaedia entries, including the peer review and uploading of the entries to the webpage. We will launch the webpage when 20 percent of the entries have been written. All the entries under preparation and their authors will be indicated on the webpage to provide a full picture of the project.

The project had the following aims:

  • To increase the social impact of the Institute since it will publish peer-reviewed high-level academic information in the form of open access encyclopaedia entries;
  • Theopen access information will not be accessible exclusively to scholars but also to the general public, and it may facilitate the spread of legal information within larger society, thereby increasing the general level of legal knowledge;
  • Intensive academic cooperation and professional debates that will have a positive impact in itself on the entire community of legal scholars;
  • Positive impact on the academic prestige of the Institute, which will contribute to maintaining its position as a leader in Hungarian legal scholarship.

Corvinus University of Budapest (CUB) Institute of Business Economics and Central European University (CEU) Business School both have institutional repositories and archives that follow the specialist nature of the institutes.

Past and Future OA Related Activities:

HUNOR was formed to advocate OA issues in Hungary.

Plans for the future include a methodology centre; adoption of international; the establishment of complementary scientific communication channels, and international relations (OpenAIRE).

List of Publications

24 November, 2014: Case Study: Open Access in Hungary, PASTEUR4OA Project, Hungary Academy of Sciences

Gyongyi Karacsony (2013) HUNOR: The Collaboration of Hungarian Open Access Repositories; Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 73, Pages 57–61.

Bálint, A, Ágnes and Karácsony, G (2008) HUNOR: HUNgarian Open Repositories Poster.

Burke, M.E (2011) Knowledge sharing in emerging economies Library Review 2 Vol 60, 1: 5-14.

Koltay, T and Boda, I (2008) Digital library issues in Hungarian LIS curricula: Examples from three library schools, Library Review, Vol. 57 (6):.430 – 441. doi: 10.1108/00242530810886706



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