United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
There is a vibrant Open Access (OA) movement in UK consolidated through the UK Open Access Implementation Group consisting of research councils, funders, universities, authors and publishing groups. Centre for Research Communications (CRC), based at the University of Nottingham manage the SHERPA OA support projects.
The House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee encouraged institutions to set up repositories. Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), the national information development organisation instigated Open Resources, Open Source and Open Standards and guides development and research for a national digital repositories programme.
The major research funders in UK include OA deposit mandates; there are OA implementation groups throughout higher education, academic publishing and government bodies.
Metrics based models for measuring academic and research outputs are not always compatible (suitable for) with OA publishing; negative impact on scholarly publishing; limited awareness of open access by researchers; self-archived material not OAI compliant or retrievable; reduced intellectual property rights of authors.
National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates:
Research Council UK (RCUK), a consortium of seven research councils in UK that fund research in 170 educational institutions, have established an OA policy effectively requiring all funded researchers to make adopt OA in conjunction with three major academic publishers: Macmillan, Blackwell and Elsevier.
Other funding bodies such as Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK and British Heart Foundation have endorsed OA policies. A full list of these is available on JULIET.
JULIET offers a directory of research funders archiving mandates and guidelines; 19 funders are named for UK, varying in size and impact. The following list gives the 7 main research organisations UK who are publicly funded and required to comply with Research Council UK’s open access although this may be interpreted as appropriate to the individual institution.
Communication address: Information Services, University of Nottingham, UK e-mail: juliet(at)sherpa.ac.uk
Arts and Humanities Research Council: AHRC
Overview: To promote and support the production of world-class research in the arts and humanities, to effectively advocate for the arts and humanities though raising its profile and significance and by encouraging researchers to disseminate and transfer knowledge for maximum impact. Funded from the Government's Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS).
OA mandate: Requires deposition of peer-reviewed journals and conference papers Open Access archives at the earliest possible opportunity; Metadata must be deposited at the date of publication; AHRC should be acknowledged as funder, with grant number.
Communication address: AHRC Polaris House North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1FL; e-mail: enquiries(at)ahrc.ac.uk
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BBSRC
Overview: To promote and support, high-quality basic, strategic and applied research and related postgraduate training in the non-clinical life sciences. To advance knowledge and technology (including the promotion and support of the exploitation of research outcomes), and provide trained scientists and engineers, thereby contributing to the economic competitiveness of the United Kingdom and the quality of life. Supports UKPubMed Central.
OA mandate: Requires deposition of peer-reviewed publications and conference papers in full text wherever possible at time of publication. Deposit is required in an appropriate Open Access repository and optional deposit may be made to named repositories or UK PubMed Central. BBSRC should be acknowledged as funder, with grant number.
Communication address: BBSRC, Polaris House. North Star Avenue, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN2 1UH e-mail: data.sharing(at)bbsrc.ac.uk
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council: EPSRC
Overview: EPSRC supports excellent, long term research and high quality postgraduate training in order to contribute to the economic competitiveness of the UK and the quality of life of its people. At any one time we are supporting a portfolio of research and training between £2-3billion.
OA mandate: All projects funded totally or partly by EPSRC must deposit all peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications either by self-archiving or paid open access publication; open access costs may be included in funding applications; authors may choose the journal most appropriate to their research. Peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers must be
Communication address: EPSRC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1ET; Email infoline(at)epsrc.ac.uk
Economic and Social Research Council: ESRC
Overview: ESRC is UK's largest organisation for funding research on economic and social issues, supporting independent, high quality research which has an impact on business, the public sector and the third sector. ESRC has a budget of £203 million for 2011/12. At any one time we support over 4,000 researchers and postgraduate students in academic institutions and independent research institutes.
OA mandate: All grant holders must deposit data resulting from an award to the UK Data Archive, and make details of grant outcomes and outputs available through the ESRC research catalogue. Publishers’ version and/or author’s final copy of peer-reviewed articles and conference papers must be deposited in an open-access archive in the UK Data Archive with and optional deposit to be made in an appropriate institutional repository.
Communication address: Economic and Social Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1UJ. Tel: 01793 413000; Fax: 01793 413001.
Medical Research Council: MRC
Overview: The MRC’s remit covers the full range of medical research from studies of molecules to the implementation of research findings into clinical practice. This includes such topics as: the use of animals in research; antibiotic resistance; brain sciences; intensive care; public health and patient safety research.
OA mandate: Peer-reviewed publications following all MRC funded work must be deposited at the earliest possible opportunity and within 6 months of publication in OA archives through institutional repositories, PubMed Central and UKPubMed Central. MRC should be acknowledged as funder, with grant number; costs of access provision may be recovered on a not-for-profit basis, MRC allows pre-documented exclusivity periods on primary and secondary data. Data sharing plans and conditions for access must be documented in n proposals, study-specific access statements and data sharing agreements. Ethical, legal and institutional regulatory permission must be sought for personal data before data can be shared. MRC has a data sharing policy whereby a data sharing agreement must be created and applicants who consider that the data arising from their proposals will not be suitable for sharing must provide clear reasons for not making it available.
Communication address: Medical Research Council, 14th Floor, One Kemble Street, London WC2B 4AN e-mail: corporate(at)headoffice.mrc.ac.uk
Natural Environment Research Council: NERC
OVERVIEW: NERC funds environmental research, survey and observation work across a range of disciplines including the geo- and earth sciences, hydrology, soil science, atmospheric research and oceanography; biological and microbiological research on animal and plant biodiversity, population dynamics and ecology; climate change research; environmental chemistry and physics;.
OA mandate: All research outcomes (publishers version and/or author’s final version of peer-reviewed publications) undertaken through NERC must be deposited in OA archives at the earliest possible opportunity. NERC should be acknowledged as funder, with grant number and compliance with the OA deposit requirement will affect future funding applications. Research undertaken by NERC staff must be deposited in NERC Open Research Archive (NORA).
Communication address: Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1EU e-mail: nora(at)nerc.ac.uk.
Science and Technology Facilities Council: STFC
OVERVIEW: STFC is involved in the most significant challenges facing society such as meeting our future energy needs, monitoring and understanding climate change, and global security. STFC’s work includes liaison with academic and industrial communities to share its expertise in materials science, space and ground-based astronomy technologies, laser science, microelectronics, wafer scale manufacturing, particle and nuclear physics, alternative energy production, radio communications and radar. NERC participates in European research initiatives and wider international research.
OA mandate: STFC requires the outcome of funded research in the form of conference papers and peer-reviewed publications to be deposited in OA archives after publication as soon as possible. Metadata should be deposited at the date of publication and include a link to the publisher’s website. STFC should be acknowledged as funder, with grant number.
Communication address: STFC HQ, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ; e-mail: epublications(at)stfc.ac.uk.
Details of Key Organizations:
Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)
JISC distributes funding for IT development in higher education and is key to open access strategy development in UK through monitoring compliance with SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative.
Communication address: Brettenham House, 5 Lancaster Place, London WC2E 7EN; e-mail: info(at)jisc.ac.uk
ERIS Enhancing Repository Infrastructure in Scotland
Is a JISC-funded project to develop user-led solutions aimed to encourage the deposit of research and integrate repositories with institutional and research processes. The project is led by the University of Edinburgh.
Communication address: ERIS, University of Edinburgh Library, EH8 9LJ. Contact: Sheila Cannell; email: projects(at)jisc.ac.uk
Is a JISC-funded project that has completed the first stage of its mandate to establish 12 repositories across Wales and is now being led by Aberystwyth University to develop a central, collaborative model to enhance this development.
Communication address: WRN,Hugh Owen Library, Aberystwyth University, Penglais Campus, Aberystwyth SY23 3DZ; email: wrnstaff(at)aber.ac.uk
eprints software was the original institutional repository software and is now used in a large number of global OA repositories. It was originally developed at the University of Southampton and is continuously developing its functions. e-Prints is a key player in setting standards and leading in technological development and collaborates with organisations to advise on repository hosting, customisation, importing existing (legacy) data and training.
Communication address: School of Electronics & Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ. e-mail: info(at)services.eprints.org
Open Access Implementation Group (OAIG)
Membership organisation of representative bodies aimed at developing a practical OA strategy in the UK, in the context of the wider ‘open’ environment and to support the UK’s evolution as a knowledge economy.
Communication address: JISC Executive, University of Bristol, 2nd Floor, Beacon House, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1QU;e-mail: d.otlet(at)jisc.ac.uk
- SHERPA services include:
- SHERPA Search - simple full-text search of UK repositories listed in OpenDOAR
- RoMEO - Publisher's copyright & archiving policies
- JULIET - Research funders archiving mandates and guidelines
- OpenDOAR - Worldwide Directory of Open Access Repositories;
RSP Repository Support Project
Provides guidance and advice on development of institutional repositories in HEIs.
Communication address: Centre for Research Communications, Greenfield Medical Library, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH; e-mail: support(at)rsp.ac.uk
An independent body for repository managers, administrators and staff in the UK to promote the profession of repository management through networking and discussion and exchange of experience.
Communication address: UKCORR-discussion(at)jiscmail.ac.uk
Thematic Open Access projects/Initiatives
This is a select list to highlight a variety of major subject/thematic repositories. Most UK universities have repositories of academic material, some of which have subject themes and often include theses and digital resources. They are accessible through the individual university websites.
- Archaeology Data Service contains a mixture of metadata and project archives on archaeological sites and finds. Mandated depository for archaeological work funded by the AHRC in the UK; managed by the University of York. Contact: Prof.Julian Richards, Director. e-mail: Julian.Richards(at)york.ac.uk Archaeology Data Service, Department of Archaeology, The King's Manor, University of York, York YO1 7EP.
- Access to Research Resources for Teachers (ARRT) Repository of the General Teaching Council of Northern Ireland. All material is available under a Creative Commons copyright licence.
Communication address: GTCNI 3rd Floor Albany House, 73 - 75 Great Victoria Street, Belfast BT2 7AF; e-mail: info(at)gtcni.org.uk
- Association for Learning Technology (ALT) Repository of professional and scholarly material; on the use of learning technology. All material is available under a Creative Commons copyright licence.
Communication address: ALT, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK.
- Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) Provides access to full text government and official publications in the subject area of education.
Communication address: Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL; e-mail: b.scaife(at)ioe.ac.uk
- Institute of Education EPrints (IoE Eprints) provides access to the research output of the institution; not all full-text.
Communication address: Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL; e-mail: libraryeprints(at)ioe.ac.uk
- Jorum Open Jorum is a JISC-funded free online repository collecting and sharing of learning and teaching materials, allowing their reuse and repurposing and managed by the University of Manchester. Discussion forum and blog.
Communication address: Mimas, The University of Manchester, Roscoe Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL; e-mail: support(at)jorum.ac.uk
- British History Online A digital repository providing access to core printed primary and secondary sources, such as official records, maps, and journals, for the medieval and modern history of the British Isles. Created by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust.
Communication address: Institute of Historical Research, University of London, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU. e-mail: bruce.tate(at)sas.ac.uk
- UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) This is a subject based repository that mirrors the data held on the PubMed Central site. It holds over 2 million+ full text, peer reviewed published journal articles covering all fields of biomedical and health research (the UK PubMed Central repository); 25 million+ PubMed and PubMed Central abstracts; National Health Service (NHS) clinical guidelines; UK biomedical and health PhD theses. It acts as an Open Access repository for peer-reviewed research from researchers who have been funded by the UKPMC Funders Group - submitted via the UK Manuscript Submission System.
Communication address: UK PubMed Central, The British Library. 96 Euston Road, London NW1 2DB; e-mail: ukpmc(at)bl.uk
- Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Social Sciences Repository An organisational repository containing bibliographic information, theses, datasets, multimedia of all research output supported by ESRC funding.
Communication address: Economic and Social Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1UJ; e-mail: adrian.alsop(at)esrc.ac.uk
- Open Research Online (ORO) Open University repository providing access to the publication output of this institution. Communication address: The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA; e-mail:lib-oro-team(at)open.ac.uk
- OpenDEPOT This is a facility for university, college and institution based researchers to deposit peer-reviewed papers, articles, book chapters where there is no institutional repository. Academics with institutional repositories will be directed to submit materials to their own sites. Managed by Edinburgh University staff.
Communication address: EDINA, Causewayside House, 160 Causewayside, Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 1PR; e-mail: p.burnhill(at)ed.ac.uk
Science and Technology
- Science and Technology Facilities Council ePublication Archive (STFC ePubs) This is an institutional repository collecting and allowing access to the academic output of STFC covering Physics and Astronomy; Technology General; Computers and IT in the form of articles, conference proceedings, theses, unpublished papers and books. Not all of the items listed are available directly from this site but linked to the full-text reference in other repositories or subscription journals.
Communication address: STFC Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX; e-mail: epublications(at)rl.ac.uk
- VADS (Visual Arts Data Service) This site provides access to images of various collections of visual arts offering access to over 100,000 images that are freely available and copyright cleared for use in learning, teaching and research in the UK. It is managed by the University for the Creative Arts, Farnham.
Communication address: University for the Creative Arts, Farnham Campus, Falkner Road, Farnham, GU9 7DS email: jccook(at)ucreative.ac.uk
Past and Future OA Related Activities:
Past and Future Related Activities
SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access) project has helped establish Institutional Repositories in 20 institutions. It oversees further sub-projects e.g. RoMEO.
EThOS: completed JISC project to establish an Electronic Theses Online Service (EThOSnet) project web site. The active service is now managed by the British Library who are managing the service http://ethos.bl.uk
PROSPERO: completed project to set up a deposit site for institutions without repositories through the Open Depot site http://opendepot.org/
Open Access Repository Junction: building on PROSPERO to allow machine-to-machine deposits. http://depot.edina.ac.uk/.
List of Publications
The following is a select list of recent materials on Open Access in UK. Note that Wagner (2010) cited below is a bibliography containing further references.
Bjork, B-C et.al (2010) Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009 PLoS ONE June 2010 Volume 5, Issue 6 | e11273. Open Access. Available freely online.
Harnad, S. (2010) The Immediate Practical Implication of the Houghton Report: Provide Green Open Access Now. Prometheus, 28 (1). pp. 55-59. Available under License Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives.
Herb, U. (2010) Sociological implications of scientific publishing: Open access, science, society, democracy, and the digital divide. First Monday. Online journal article
House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology final report on "Scientific Publications: Free for all?"
Jacobs, N (2006) Open Access: key strategic, technical and economic aspects Oxford: Chandos Publishing. ISBN-10: 1843342030; ISBN-13: 978-1843342038
Kaufman-Wills Group (2005) The facts about Open Access: A study of the financial and non-financial effect of alternative business models for scholarly journals, ALPSP Special Report. The full report is available for download (PDF) free of charge.
Poynder, R (2011) Open Access by numbers Open and shut blogspot
Solomon. D.J. (2008) Developing Open Access Electronic Journals: A Practical Guide Oxford: Chandos Publishing ISBN-10: 1843343398; ISBN-13: 978-1843343394
Suber, P (2008) Open Access to electronic theses and dissertations DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol 28, No 1
Suber, P (2009) Open Access Policy Options SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #130
Swan, A. (2008) Study on the availability of UK academic "grey literature" to UK SMEs. Open Access.
Swan, A (2010) The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date. Creative Commons license.
Swan, A and Chan, L (2011) OASIS: Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook Online resource. Creative Commons license.
Wagner, A.B (2010) Open Access Citation Advantage: an annotated bibliography Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship Winter, 2010
Whitfield, J (2011) Open access comes of age Nature 474, 428 (2011) 21 June 2011Back to top