United States of America
The USA embraced OA principles in the 1960’s developing ERIC and MEDLINE. Initiatives e.g. PubMed Central continue and offer repository facilities and access to international medical scholarship. There are 406 repositories and 1300+ OA journals in USA, making it the world’s largest OA publisher.
There is strong support for Open Access in USA. The NIH mandate mandates the deposit of medical research. USA has 7 funding mandates and over 50 institutional mandates at HEI public and private institutions, research universities and liberal arts colleges.
Major barriers are widespread misunderstanding around OA; a well-funded publishing lobby.
USA has many institutional and collaborative OA projects, an important current project being that of the Creative Commons (CC).
Raising the Floor Consortium is a collaboration between Creative Commons (CC), Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative (OLI), Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) and the Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges (SBCTC). (Source: Creative Commons)
The following websites give current news and information on OA initiatives:
- American Scientist Open Access Forum
- Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI)
- Harvard Open Access Project
- Open Access Directory (OAD)
- OA Tracking Project (OATP)
- SPARC Open Access Newsletter
- Open Access Archivangelism by Stevan Harnad
National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates:
National Institutes of Health (NIH), largest medical research funder has a mandate requiring OA deposit within 12 months of publication.
USA pro-OA legislation proposed in America Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPPA) Public Law 111-358 would require all federal research agencies with a research budget of $100 million per year to make research output available in open access within 6 months. It has been proposed twice but remains to be voted on.
There are 7 funding mandates operating in USA from:
- Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF)
- Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)
- Institute of Educational Sciences (IES)
- MacArthur Foundation
- National Institutes of Health (NIH)
- Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Foundation.
Details of Key Organizations:
Alliance for Taxpayer Access (ATA)
Overview: ATA is a consortium of patient groups, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, publishers, and health promotion organizations administered by SPARC and working towards open access of taxpayer-funded research.
Communication address: Alliance for Taxpayer Access, c/o SPARC, 21 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036 USA; e-mail: jennifer(at)arl.org
Open Access Working Group (OAWG)
Overview: OAWG, initiated by SPARC in 2003, to build a framework for collective advocacy of open access to research. The group seeks to build broad-based recognition that the economic and societal benefits of scientific and scholarly research investments are maximized through open access to the results of that research. OAWG aims to bring about changes within stakeholder institutions enabling viable open access models to be widely and successfully implemented and accepted. (Source: OAWG)
Communication address: SPARC 21 Dupont Circle, NW. Suite 800 Washington, DC 20036; e-mail: sparc(at)arl.org
Public Knowledge (PK)
Overview: Public Knowledge is a Washington, D.C.-based public interest group working to defend citizens' rights in the emerging digital culture. Public Knowledge will seek to fulfill four broad goals: Ensuring that U.S. intellectual property law and policy reflect the “cultural bargain” intended by the framers of the constitution: providing an incentive to creators and innovators while benefiting the public through the free flow of information and ideas; Preserving an Internet that is built upon open standards and protocols and “end-to-end” architecture, thereby fostering innovation and user control; Protecting consumers of digital technology from market practices designed to erode competition, choice and fairness; Ensuring that international intellectual property policies are adopted through democratic processes and with public interest participation. (Source: PK)
Communication address: Public Knowledge, 1818 N Street, NW, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20036; e-mail: pk(at)publicknowledge.org
Scholarly Publishing Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)
Overview: SPARC is an international alliance of academic and research libraries working to correct imbalances in the scholarly publishing system. Developed by the Association of Research Libraries, SPARC has become a catalyst for change. Action by SPARC in collaboration with stakeholders – including authors, publishers, and libraries – builds on the unprecedented opportunities created by the networked digital environment to advance the conduct of scholarship. Leading academic organizations have endorsed SPARC. (Source: SPARC)
Communication address: SPARC, 21 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036; e-mail: sparc(at)arl.org
Thematic Open Access projects/Initiatives
There are special collections that have been digitalised within most universities and research organisations.
Past and Future OA Related Activities:
There are Open Access Week (October 24 to 30) events and seminars taking place in various locations supported by SPARC. These include:
- Webcast invitation: Open Access Week Idea Swap, 2011;
Forthcoming events include:
- Berlin9 Open Access Conference: The impact of Open Access in Research and Scholarship 9-10 November 2011, Washington DC is organised jointly by SPARC, Max Planck Society, Association of Research Libraries, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Marine Biological Laboratory.
- The SPARC 2012 Open Access meeting will be held March 11-13 2012 at the Kansas City Intercontinental Hotel.
List of Publications
Albert, K (2006) Open access: implications for scholarly publishing and medical libraries J Med Libr Assoc.; 94(3): 253–262.
Bastian, J et.al (2011) From Teacher to Learner to User: Developing a Digital Stewardship Pedagogy Library Trends, Volume 59 (4) Spring 2011: 607-622
Björk B-C, Welling P, Laakso M, Majlender P, Hedlund T, et al. (2010) Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009. PLoS ONE 5(6): e11273. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011273
Boissy, R., & Schatz, B. (2011). Scholarly Communications from the Publisher Perspective. Journal of Library Administration, 51(5/6), 476-484. doi:10.1080/01930826.2011.589355
De Bellis, N (2009) Bibliometrics and Citation analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybernetics. Scarecrow Press: Lanham, MD
Gargouri Y, Hajjem C, Larivière V, Gingras Y, Carr L, et al. (2010) Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13636. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0013636
Dazey, M., & Parks, B. (2010) Thoughts on Open Access: An Interview with Diane Graves. Serials Review, 36(2), 112-115. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2010.03.002
Greco, A.N. et.al (2007) The Changing College and University Library Market for University Press Books and Journals: 1997–2004 Journal of Scholarly Publishing, Vol 39, (1) October 2007: 265-296.
Suber, P (2011) Access to dangerous knowledge: reflections on 9/11 ten years later, SPARC Open Access Newsletter, September 2, 2011.
Suber, P (2011) Another US federal OA mandate, SPARC Open Access Newsletter, February 2, 2011.
Suber, P (2006) Open Access in the United States, In Open Access: Key Strategic, Technical and Economic Aspects (ed. Neil Jacobs, 2006).
Suber, P (2011) Open access in 2010, SPARC Open Access Newsletter, January 2, 2011.
Suber, P SPARC Open Access Newsletter (online newsletter offering news, information and debate on OA issues; updated monthly)
Utter, T & Holley, R. P (2009). The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation. Resource Sharing & Information Networks, 20(1/2), 3-17. Doi: 10.1080/07377790903018444
Van der Veer Martens, B Approaching the Anti-Collection Library Trends, Volume 59, (4) Spring 2011: 568-587 DOI: 10.1353/lib.2011.0021
Vrana, R. (2011) Digital repositories and the future of preservation and use of scientific Informatologia, 44(1), 55-62.
Young, P. (2009). Open access dissemination challenges: a case study. OCLC Systems & Services, 25(2), 93-104. Doi: 10.1108/10650750910961893
Wagner, A. B (2009) A&I, Full Text, and Open Access: Prophecy from the Trenches Learned Publishing, Vol 22, (1) January 2009: 73-74.Back to top