1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was adopted at The Hague (Netherlands) in 1954 in the wake of massive destruction of cultural heritage during the Second World War.  It is the first international treaty with a world-wide vocation focusing exclusively on the protection of cultural heritage in the event of armed conflict.

It covers immovable and movable cultural heritage, including monuments of architecture, art or history, archaeological sites, works of art, manuscripts, books and other objects of artistic, historical or archaeological interest, as well as scientific collections of all kinds regardless of their origin or ownership.

The States Parties to the Convention benefit from their mutual commitment, with a view to sparing cultural heritage from consequences of possible armed conflicts through the implementation of the following measures:

  • Adoption of peacetime safeguarding measures such as the preparation of inventories, the planning of emergency measures for protection against fire or structural collapse, the preparation for the removal of movable cultural property or the provision for adequate in situ protection of such property, and the designation of competent authorities responsible for the safeguarding of cultural property;
  • Respect for cultural property situated within their own territory as well as within the territory of other States Parties by refraining from any use of the property and its immediate surroundings or of the appliances in use for its protection for purposes likely to expose it to destruction or damage in the event of armed conflict; and by refraining from any act of hostility directed against such property;
  • Consideration of the possibility of registering a limited number of refuges, monumental centres and other immovable cultural property of very great importance in the International Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection order to obtain special protection for such property;
  • Consideration of the possibility of marking of certain important buildings and monuments with a distinctive emblem of the Convention;
  • Establishment of special units within the military forces to be responsible for the protection of cultural property;
  • Sanctions for breaches of the Convention; and,
  • Wide promotion of the Convention within the general public and target groups such as cultural heritage professionals, the military or law-enforcement agencies.
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