Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

The majority of the 1954 Hague Convention provisions serve to protect all objects, buildings and sites designated as "cultural property" under Article 1.

However, the 1954 Hague Convention also establishes a two-tier protection regime.

  • A handful of provisions from the 1954 Hague Convention apply to a select category of cultural property under so-called "special protection".
  • The 1999 Second Protocol for its part, with the ultimate aim to replacing special protection, provides a more comprehensive system and a supplementary level of protection for a select tier of cultural property under "enhanced protection".

In order to help with the protection of their cultural property, States may also have recourse to the Fund for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict or request international assistance.

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