Accredited Non-Governmental Organizations
The Scientific and Technical Advisory Body to the Meeting of States Parties to the 2001 Convention consults and collaborates with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) having activities related to the scope of the Convention, namely ICUCH, as well as other competent NGOs, when these are accredited by the Meeting of States Parties (Article 1 (e) of its Statutes).
During the Third Meeting of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Body to the 2001 Convention (April 2012, Paris), the Advisory Body members stressed the importance of the NGO accreditations. The NGOs are working directly in the field and with national authorities worldwide; therefore, they are of great importance in the dissemination of ethical principles and guidelines of the Convention. NGOs are recognized as having a very useful insight in the practice of underwater archaeology in the field, especially concerning issues that need to be considered in what constitutes best practice and the fostering of the development of underwater archaeology on a national, regional and international level.
The Bureau of the Meeting of States Parties to the 2001 Convention, in reference to Resolution 9 / MSP 3, decided to temporarily accredit the following NGOs for consultation and collaboration with the Scientific and Technical Advisory Body of the 2001 Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (This accreditation is granted pending a decision on this issue to be taken by the Meeting of States Parties):
ADRAMAR - Association for the development of maritime archaeology research
Character: Non-profit organization, NGO
Scope/Seat: France, French territory and global
Members: underwater archaeologists
ADRAMAR is a non-profit organization, which joins underwater archaeologists trying to promote archaeological research in France and elsewhere. Its activities support the work of the DRASSM (Département des Recherches Archéologiques Subaquatiques et Sous-Marines, Ministry of Culture, France). Since its creation in 1993, ADRAMAR has undertaken many archaeological excavation and research works (Boussole, Astrolabe, Natiere, Brunei, Hougue-battle). Today, it is a significant player in underwater archaeology and develops partnerships appropriate to the project objectives of the French State authorities, local authorities, scientific institutions and private enterprises. ADRAMAR elaborates an atlas of underwater cultural heritage in the Atlantic and undertakes archaeological excavations in cooperation with the DRASSM.
Z.A. La Fontenelle
35113 Domagné - France
Tel. : +33 (0)9 77 68 50 79
Fax : +33 (0)2 23 27 29 46
Scope/Seat: France, French and Mediterranean
Members: underwater archaeologists and professional divers
ARKAEOS works since 2004 in underwater archaeology in French and Mediterranean waters undertaking site research as well as site management activities. ARKAEOS was created by young scientists and professional archaeological divers in order to create a team of professional competences in underwater archaeology. Beside its ability to work on archaeological sites it can also intervene in project preparation, such as fundraising, logistics, and management. ARKAEOS is committed to the valorisation of underwater cultural heritage and its research, in particular through the organization of expositions, publications, conferences, animations and else. ARKAEOS has close working connections to the DRASSM, the French CNRS, universities, State authorities and museums, in particular through the employment of several of its members with these institutions or formal cooperation agreements.
1 Bd LONGCHAMP
Tel : +33(0)4 88 00 99 36
Email : souenfontaine(at)arkaeos.fr
SHA – Society for Historical Archaeology
Character: educational not-for-profit organization
Members: professionals and lay persons; the chair of the UNESCO Committee of SHA is appointed by the SHA president, and recommends appointment of other members who serve three-year terms. Presently, there are 25 members in the Committee, and two advisors.
Formed in 1967, the Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) is a scholarly group concerned with the archaeology of the modern world (i.e. regarding a time-span from A.D. 1400-present). The main focus of the society is the era since the beginning of European exploration. SHA promotes research and dissemination of knowledge concerning historical archaeology. It is specifically concerned with the identification, excavation, and conservation of sites and materials on land and underwater. The society emphasizes the Americas, but also includes European exploration in Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
In 1999, the SHA established the SHA UNESCO Committee to monitor development and negotiation of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. With the adoption of the Convention at the 31st General Conference, the committee’s role changed to supporting the Convention’s ratification and implementation, and to at least obtain the adoption of its Annex as “best practice” when ratification is unlikely in certain areas.
The SHA UNESCO Committee has gathered endorsements and encouraged support for the UNESCO 2001 Convention and its Annex in a wide circle of professional organizations and associations.
Since the entry into force of the Convention on 2 January 2009 additional emphasis is given to facilitating training opportunities and public awareness, including outreach to countries that have ratified.
Members of the SHA UNESCO Committee have represented the SHA at UNESCO conferences in Jamaica (2002), Mozambique (2003), St. Lucia (2003) (2008), Hong Kong (2003), Senegal (2004), Colombia (2004), Morocco (2006), Sri Lanka (2007), and Ecuador (2007); and at the first session of the Meeting of States Parties to the 2001 Convention, Paris (26-27 March 2009). Since 2008, the committee has been cooperating with the US Government Affairs Committee in planning a strategy to support the Titanic Bill (based on the 1996 ICOMOS Charter and the Annex of the 2001 Convention). SHA contributed ten articles to the UNESCO/ICOMOS publication “Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk”. In 2007, a presentation on the UNESCO Committee’s work was given at the Kingston World Archaeology Congress. In October 2008, WAC published Underwater and Maritime Archaeology in Latin America and the Caribbean (One World Archaeology Series).
Peggy Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Director, Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA)
Chair, SHA UNESCO Committee
Telephone: + 1 (345) 525-4691
NAS – Nautical Archaeology Society
Character: charitable non-profit organization
Scope/Seat: international/United Kingdom
Members: open to all interested persons within its ethical standards
The Nautical Archaeology Society is a charitable organization formed to actively involve members from varied backgrounds - divers and non-divers, scientists, historians or any other person with an interest locally, nationally and internationally in preserving and studying maritime heritage. It aims to improve archaeological techniques and encourage education, dissemination and research.
Over the last thirty seven years, the NAS has worked towards
- advancing education in nautical archaeology at all levels;
- improving and standardizing techniques in excavation, conservation and reporting; and
- publishing detailed and comprehensive journals, newsletters and guides on maritime heritage and archaeological developments.
The internationally recognized NAS four-step training curriculum offers an opportunity to gain and refine skills to all who are interested in underwater archaeology, whilst both working towards a recognized qualification and contributing to archaeological projects. The training focuses on skills and techniques used in underwater and foreshore excavation and research and introduces fundamental principles and theoretical parameters of maritime archaeology. In training NAS strives to ensure that everyone has considered and understood the importance of maritime heritage and learned to care for artefacts encountered on the seabed, the foreshore, or on dry land.
The NAS curriculum is being used by heritage and archaeology organizations in fifteen countries to raise awareness of threats to archaeology and to provide skills for participation in projects. NAS assists UNESCO in the elaboration and implementation of its regional training programmes in Sri Lanka and Thailand.
Publications: NAS publishes The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology (IJNA) and has recently published “Underwater Archaeology: The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice” ed. 2, 2008, which was commissioned to help address the scarcity of information on maintaining acceptable standards of archaeology whilst working underwater. The original 1992 publication, known as the NAS Handbook, was updated to ensure it stays current with the great technological advances made in the field of underwater exploration and archaeological research. The new edition includes advice and guidance on underwater photography, the importance of conservation and the use of newly evolved geophysical and remote-sensing equipment.
Representatives of NAS participate in events including Dive Shows, the Festival of British Archaeology and many local maritime festivals and conferences. NAS hosts an annual conference in November, featuring a full day of lectures in a range of topics given by professional and amateur archaeologists from the NAS international community. NAS was co-organizer of the IKUWA3 conference, which took place under UNESCO’s auspices.
Nautical Archaeology Society
Mark Beattie-Edwards, MA, AIfA, Programme Director
Eastney, Portsmouth, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 23 92818419
JNAPC - Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee
Character: association of British organizations
Scope/Seat: United Kingdom
Members: Members and observers cover a wide cross section of the British underwater archaeological community from sports diving organisations to government departments as well as selected professionals
The JNAPC was formed in 1988 by individuals and representatives of institutions who wished to raise awareness of Britain’s underwater cultural heritage and to convince the British government that sites of historic importance located under water should receive no less protection than those on land. It meets four times a year and maintains a legislation sub-committee that occupies itself with domestic law and international agreements such as the UNESCO 2001 Convention. JNAPC is consulted in case of law reforms concerning submerged archaeological sites.
The JNAPC's position is that historic wrecks in international waters should not be salvaged or excavated for commercial gain. It seeks the ratification by the United Kingdom Government of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.
The aim of the JNAPC has been to raise the profile of nautical archaeology in both government and diving circles and to present a consensus upon which government and other organizations can act.
- The JNAPC seeks the ratification by the United Kingdom Government of the UNESCO 2001 Convention and to this effect it launched the Burlington House Declaration which was presented to the government in 2006. Since then it has continued to press for ratification by the UK.
- The JNAPC campaigns for the education of all sea users about the importance of nautical heritage. It has sought better funding for nautical archaeology and improved legislation, a subject on which it has published a number of papers that have made detailed recommendations for legal and administrative changes to improve protection of the UK’s underwater cultural heritage (see Heritage Law at Sea, 2000; An Interim Report on The Valletta Convention & Heritage Law at Sea, 2003).
- The JNAPC launched the publication Heritage at Sea in May 1989, which put forward proposals for the better protection of archaeological sites underwater. It was followed up by Still at Sea in May 1993 which drew attention to outstanding issues. The Code of Practice for Seabed Developers was launched in January 1995, and an archaeological leaflet for divers, Underwater Finds - What to Do, was published in January 1998 in collaboration with the Sports Diving Associations BSAC, PADI and SAA. The more detailed explanatory brochure, Underwater Finds - Guidance for Divers, followed in May 2000 and Wreck Diving – Don’t Get Scuttled, an educational brochure for divers, was published in October 2000.
INA – Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Character: non-profit, scientific and educational organization based at and affiliated with Texas A&M University
Members: open to all interested persons within its ethical standards
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) is a global leader in the field of underwater archaeology. Since its foundation in 1960, INA conducts archaeological research to increase knowledge of the evolution of civilization through the location and excavation of submerged and buried ships, submerged ruins, and their associated artefacts. In order to achieve its mission, INA seeks sponsorships and works with partners worldwide to continue the search for the most archaeologically important nautical sites in the world. These sites are surveyed, excavated, studied and the findings preserved to the highest scientific standards and shared with the widest possible audience for the benefit of humanity. Since 1973, INA has sponsored almost than 200 excavations and surveys spanning a 3,600-year time frame on five continents with projects in Albania, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Bulgaria, Canada, the Caymans, Cyprus, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, France, Georgia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Lebanon, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, Panama, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the Turks and Caicos, and in the United States from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
INA endorses and follows the Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage (1996) as ratified by the 11th ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) General Assembly, held in Sofia, Bulgaria. The guiding principles of INA are thus based on scholarship and an equal regard for every aspect of a project, from excavation of the site and the conservation and preservation of artefacts, to the publication of research and the distribution of the knowledge gained. INA has pioneered technologies and fostered excellence in all aspects of nautical archaeology, from excavation and conservation through to preservation, analysis and publication. INA also contributes to the global knowledge and the future of the discipline by providing training grounds for the next generation of nautical archaeologists through their participation in Institute projects. By affiliating with Texas A&M University, INA advanced the field of underwater archaeology not only in the United States, by training future academics, museum curators, and state, federal, and contract underwater archaeologists, but by training students from around the world. In order to disseminate the results of its research in scholarly and popular form, INA began several publications series: The Ed Rachal Foundation Nautical Archaeology Series (Texas A&M Press) for major excavation reports; Studies in Nautical Archaeology (Texas A&M Press in the U.S. and Chatham Publishing in the U.K.) for slimmer works, including those written by graduate students as M.A. theses; INA Reports in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, and the INA Quarterly (formerly INA Newsletter), now joined by the INA Annual.
INA's decades of experience in Turkey provide a model for cooperation between this American research institute and other countries. INA's dedication to and insistence upon rigorous archaeological techniques, education of local staff and archaeologists, cooperation with local governments and needs, and curation, exhibition, and publication of finds in the home country have produced one of the finest nautical archaeology institutes and museums in the world.
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG College Station, TX 77841-5137, USA
Tel: +1 979 845-6694 Fax: +1 979 847-9260
DEGUWA – German Society for the Promotion of Underwater Archaeology
Character: registered non-governmental organization, non-profit
Members: international, number unlimited
The Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Unterwasserarchäologie (German Society for the Promotion of Underwater Archaeology – DEGUWA), is a non-profit non-governmental organization. It associates professional archaeologists, historians and scientists, as well as laymen and sport divers. It aims at the promotion of and the care for underwater archaeology and the protection of cultural artefacts. DEGUWA members are working in an honorary capacity in this area since 18 years. DEGUWA supports the ratification and implementation of the “Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage” (2001). DEGUWA’s objectives are achieved by collaborating with universities, heritage agencies, museums, other non-profit organizations and sport divers at national and international level. Underwater excavations and surveys are carried out in cooperation with the responsible authorities. The annual conference “In Poseidons Reich” serves as venue for the exchange of latest research results, whilst its journal SKYLLIS serves dissemination purposes. DEGUWA’s training scheme follows the standards of the Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS).
DEGUWA’s Activities in relation to the UNESCO 2001 Convention
1999 DEGUWA initiates the 1st international congress for underwater archaeology entitled “Protection of Cultural Heritage under Water” held at Sassnitz, Rügen, which was followed by a final resolution calling for support to the UNESCO Convention, at the time in elaboration.
2001 Attendance of the adoption of the Convention in Paris.
2002 Report at the DEGUWA conference “In Poseidon’s Reich VII” on the passing of the UNESCO Convention 2001 in Aachen (Germany).
2006 Appeal to the cultural committee of the German Bundestag concerning the improvement of the draft law regarding the Unidroit Convention about stolen or illegally exported cultural heritage of 1995. The DEGUWA “demands insistently to modify the drafted law to the effect that all archaeological and historic-cultural findings – the known as well as the unknown – in the oceans, rivers and lakes are protected”.
2007 Critique issued concerning the decision of the Bundestag of February 1, 2007 in the 2nd reading and of the final vote about the drafted law regarding the UNESCO-Agreement for protection of cultural heritage.
2008 Adoption of the “Hamburg Statement” appealing to German politicians to ratify the 2001Convention.
2009 January: During the worldwide largest aquatics fair boot 09 in Düsseldorf, DEGUWA starts the first phase of an information campaign regarding the UNESCO 2001 Convention and of the issuance of a petition to the German Bundestag encouraging ratification.
February – June: Second phase of the same campaign in cooperation with academic institutions, museums, cultural associations and the general public.
October: Presentation “Year One after Entry into Force: The Situation in Germany and the Input of NGOs” at the First Experts Meeting on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage in South-Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, Zadar (Croatia) and Distribution of a Joint Statement at the 12th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology in Istanbul (Turkey).
Peter Winterstein M.A., Director
Hetzelsdorf 33, D-91362 Pretzfeld
CIE - Centre ofr International Heritage Activities
Character: non-profit organization with board of trustees founded in compliance with statutory regulations of the Chamber of Commerce of the Netherlands
Members: international, number unlimited
The CIE is an independent, non-profit organization for international knowledge exchange on the heritage of the European expansion and international heritage cooperation. The CIE is involved in the management of international heritage programs and stimulates academic research on the heritage of the European expansion. It is considered an important academic partner. CIE’s experts have published various articles in national and international scientific journals as well as in editorials. Direct academic partner is the University of Leiden, where the director is appointed as associate professor at the faculty of archaeology.
CIE was founded in 2006 in the Netherlands. The roots of its activities lie in Sri Lanka with the Maritime Archaeological VOC-ship Avondster project (1998-2007). Together with UNESCO (Bangkok office) the CIE worked on a field school in Galle, Sri Lanka, as follow-up of this project, from 2006 on under the CIE. Many activities of the CIE relate to the theme of Maritime Underwater Cultural Heritage (MUCH) and all serve the purpose of the ratification of the UNESCO Convention of 2001, Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, which the CIE strongly supports.
Since its founding the CIE has implemented several capacity building programs appropriate for a number of countries, and taking into consideration the requirements of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. UCH activities have taken place in Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, Mozambique, Hong Kong and Micronesia. For the coming years more activities are scheduled.
A selection of CIE’s UCH activities:
- Preparation and Implementation of Maritime Cultural Heritage Management (MCHM) Tanzania: CIE prepared an outline of a capacity building programme. The programme focussed on the implementation of comprehensive theoretical and practical training of the trainees. In addition CIE conducted some non-disturbance site surveys in the Kilwa region. This survey also assisted in preparing a more comprehensive management plan for this important World Heritage Site.
- CIE and the South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) developed an Underwater Cultural Heritage Programme. Essentially, building up the capacity of a ‘Competent Authority’ as required under the 2001 UNESCO and developing a program that is consistent with the principles and practices (the ‘Rules’) of the UNESCO Convention.
- Two-day workshop with Maputo UNESCO Office staff, and government, university and Ilha de Mozambique officials and community representatives, regarding the protection and management of Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage (MUCH) sites around the Ilha de Mozambique. The CIE was requested to organize a “sensibilisation seminar” with the population of Ilha de Mozambique as a first step in a new programme for the (maritime) world heritage of Ilha.
In general the CIE stimulates the development of a regional database in Southern Africa on UCH sites through organizing workshops in the region.
Centre for International Heritage Activities (CIE)
Dr Robert Parthesius, CIE director
Steenstraat 1, 2312 BS Leiden, the Netherlands
AIMA – Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology
Character: incorporated non-profit organization with a constitution, annual general meeting held in conjunction with the annual conference
Members: international, number unlimited
The Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of underwater cultural heritage, and promotion of maritime archaeology conducted in accordance with internationally accepted ethical standards. Based in Australia it has sponsored work throughout Australia, Asia and the Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. AIMA works closely with and provides advice to the Australian Federal Government (Depart of the Environment and Water Resources) on policy pertaining to underwater cultural heritage, such as the Australian National Historic Shipwrecks Research Plan, and the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.
AIMA strongly supports the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage and the work of the International Committee for Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICUCH), a committee of ICOMOS. Its objectives are:
- to support the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage and adopt the Rules of its Annex for its activities on underwater cultural heritage;
- to support and undertake scientific research in the field of maritime archaeology within a defined Code of Ethics
- to promote the advancement of the field of maritime archaeology;
- to promote international co-operation in the excavation of maritime archaeological sites, and the research and studies related to this field;
- to co-operate with Australasian Maritime Archaeological Associations and any other body or person having similar aims;
- to publish periodically a Bulletin and a Newsletter or such other publications as may be determined from time to time;
- to inform and make recommendations to government and organizations of matters relating to maritime archaeology;
- to co-operate with Australasian organizations working in the field of maritime archaeology; and
- to subsidize or contribute to any institutions, organizations and scholarships agreeable to any of the objects specified herein.
AIMA members have been involved in training programmes in China, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Joint co-operative projects have been undertaken in Kenya, Oman, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Korea and Japan, to assist and support existing or developing maritime archaeological programmes. AIMA has also supported the recent Australian expeditions to Turkey to identify the remains of the WWI Australian submarine AE2 lost in the Dardanelles at the time of the Gallipoli Campaign. For a number of years AIMA also supported the Joint Thai-Australian Maritime Archaeological Programme in Thailand. This programme involved work in association with Thai maritime archaeologists on shipwreck sites in the Gulf of Thailand.
Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA)
Jennifer McKinnon, Ph.D./Wendy van Duivenvoorde, Ph.D., AIMA President
Dept. of Archaeology
GPO Box 2100
Adelaide SA 5100
ACUA - Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology
Character: Advisory council with board of directors and advisors
Members: 12 professionals from state and federal archaeology programs, museums, non-profit institutes, and avocational societies involved in underwater archaeology; it also includes professionals in the fields of conservation and education
The Advisory Council for Underwater Archaeology (ACUA) was created in 1959. It is composed of twelve men and women elected on a rotating basis by the membership of the Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA). It has individual and institutional associate members. A Memorandum of Agreement between the ACUA and the SHA formalizes the relationship between the two organizations. Over the years ACUA became a significant entity in underwater research. It has a board of directors and advisors.
The ACUA serves as an international advisory body on issues relating to underwater archaeology, conservation, and submerged cultural resources management. Its primary purposes are to organize meetings and foster communication in the field. It is working to educate scholars, governments, sport divers, and the general public about underwater archaeology and the preservation of underwater resources. The ACUA assists the SHA Conference Committee in organizing the annual SHA Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology and aids in producing special thematic issues on underwater archaeology. The ACUA developed an introductory brochure on underwater archaeology.
ACUA undertakes also many other activities, including providing scholarship monies for students and organizing and supporting research. ACUA has also involved itself in many major projects; developing standards for specialty courses in underwater archaeology, and standards for conservation of artifacts from the underwater environment.
The ACUA was a prime mover in enabling passage of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987, a piece of legislation which has had a profound effect on the protection, management and research on underwater archaeological resources.
ACUA (Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology)
Marc-André Bernier, Chair
Parcs Canada/Parks Canada
1800 Walkley Road, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0M5