The transformative perspective is concerned with the extent to which TVET is lifelong, innovative,sustainable and linked to education for well-being.
Changing governance and widening stakeholders’ engagement in TVET Many TVET reforms have resulted in the development of new national organizations and new coordination and oversight structures. These new structures and changed patterns of interaction between stakeholders (public, private and civil society) bring new challenges and changes in the governance, management and delivery of TVET. At the same time, there is a need for incentives and mechanisms to engage the key stakeholders and to ensure that TVET provision meets their needs. Attention is often given to the involvement of employers, while at the same time there is growing emphasis on the importance of making TVET answerable to other stakeholders such as learners, parents, unions, communities and elected representatives.
Promoting innovation and sustainable development through TVET
In being responsive to immediate labour market or societal demands, there is a danger that TVET is always reacting to existing technologies rather than contributing to new breakthroughs through providing workers with the skills necessary for economic or social innovations. The rise of the sustainable development agenda suggests that there is a need for TVET to engage more systemically with social, cultural and environmental issues, in terms of its own ways of working, its contribution to sustainable development, and in response to the changing job opportunities and skills needs that these issues bring about.
Achieving better quality teaching and learning
Much of TVET takes place within enterprises, either through formal training or through informal learning in communities or while on-the-job. This complexity of learning sites and modes brings considerable policy challenges for achieving better outcomes of teaching and learning. Concerns have been raised about the quality and the very wide differences in quantity and type of workplace learning opportunities across sectors and occupations. For informal economies, there are also concerns that a successful apprenticeship may not be a guarantee of successful longer-term decent work. In the formal TVET sector, there is a growing awareness of the changing role of teachers and trainers and the need for a systemic view of staff development needs, qualifications, career paths and the remuneration of TVET teachers and trainers.
Qualifications systems for connecting skills development and lifelong learning
There is a growing realization that learning takes place in multiple settings that go far beyond formal TVET. This requires establishing flexible and open learning and qualifications systems able to reduce the barriers between education, training and work, and to increase access and progression among initial and continuing TVET. In addition, TVET has a complex relationship with general education, with often-shifting and sometimes highly permeable boundaries and very distinct national traditions. At the secondary and higher levels in many countries, general education has taken on greater vocational perspectives, through an increasing emphasis on employability skills. At the same time, TVET frequently has also increasingly taken on general education components, both in the form of remediation of weaknesses in general education attainment and through a concern with the increasing knowledge content of many forms of work.