2002 - Glossary

  • adult literacy/illiteracy rate (estimated)
    Number of literate/illiterate adults expressed as a percentage of the total adult population aged 15 years and above. A person is considered literate/illiterate if he/she can/cannot read and write with understanding a simple statement related to his/her life.
  • early childhood care and education (ECCE)
    Programmes that, in addition to providing children with care, offer a structured and purposeful set of learning activities either in a formal institution (pre-primary) or as part of a non-formal child development programme. Early childhood care and education programmes are normally designed for children aged 3 years and above and include organized learning activities that constitutean average equivalent of at least 2 hours per day and 100 days per year.
  • enrolment
    Number of pupils or students enrolled in a given level of education, regardless of age. See also gross enrolment ratio and net enrolment ratio.
  • entrance age (official)
    Age at which pupils or students would enter a given programme or level of education assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade. Note that the theoretical entrance age to a given programme or level may be very different from the actual or even the typical or most common entrance age.
  • gender parity index (GPI)
    Ratio of female-to-male value of a given indicator. A GPI of 1 indicates parity between sexes; a GPI that varies between 0 and 1 means a disparity in favour of boys; a GPI greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of girls.
  • grade
    Stage of instruction usually covered in one school year.
  • gross enrolment ratio (GER)
    Number of pupils enrolled in a given level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the relevant official age group. Note that GER can be higher than 100% as a result of grade repetition and entry at younger and older ages than the typical grade-level age.
  • gross intake rate (GIR)
    Number of new entrants into first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official entrance age to primary education.
  • gross domestic product (GDP)
    Sum of gross value added by all residents producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
  • gross national product (GNP)
    Sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes, minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products plus net receipts of income from abroad. Since net receipts from abroad may be positive or negative, it is possible for the GNP to be greater or smaller than the GDP.
  • gross national product per capita
    Gross national product in current US dollars ($) divided by the total population.
  • International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
    A classification system designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling and presenting comparable indicators and statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. This system was introduced in 1976, and revised in 1997.
  • life expectancy at birth
    Theoretical number of years a newborn will live if the age-specific mortality rates in the year of birth are taken as constant, i.e. the sum of the mortality rates by age.
  • lower secondary education (ISCED Level 2)
    Generally designed to continue the basic programmes of the primary level. Teaching at lower secondary level is typically more subject-focused, requiring more specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education.
  • net enrolment ratio (NER)
    Number of pupils in the official age group for a given level of education enrolled in that level expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.
  • net intake rate in primary education (NIR)
    Number of pupils at the official school entrance age who are new entrants into the first grade of primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of official admission age to primary education.
  • new entrants
    Pupils entering primary education for the first time.
  • out-of-school children
    Children in the official school age group who are not enrolled in school.
  • percentage of new entrants to primary education with ECCE experience
    Number of new entrants to primary education who have attended some form of organized early childhood care and education programmes equivalent at least 200 hours, expressed as percentage of total number of new entrants to primary education.
  • pre-primary education (ISCED Level 0)
    Refers to programmes at the initial stage of organized instruction, which are primarily designed to introduce very young children, usually from age 3 or so, to a school-type environment, i.e. to provide a bridge between home and school. Such programmes are variously referred to as infant education, nursery education, pre-school education, kindergarten, or early childhood education. See also early childhood care and education programmes.
  • primary education (ISCED Level 1)
    Sometimes called elementary education, refers to educational programmes that are normally designed on a unit or project basis to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other subjects such as history, geography, natural science, social science, art and music. In some cases religious instruction is also featured. These subjects serve to develop pupils’ ability to obtain and use information the children need about their home, community, country, etc. Synonym: primary schooling.
  • private enrolment
    Number of children enrolled in an institution (school or college) that is not operated by a public authority, but is rather controlled and managed on either a profit or non-profit basis by a private body such as a non governmental organization or association, a religious body, a special interest group, a foundation or a business enterprise.
  • public expenditure on education
    Total public finance devoted to education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities. Household contributions are normally excluded. Public expenditure on education includes both capital and current expenditure. Capital (public) expenditure includes expenditure for construction, renovation and major repairs of buildings and the purchase of heavy equipment or vehicles. Current (public) expenditure includes expenditure for goods and services consumed within the current year and which would need to be renewed if there were a need for prolongation the following year. It includes expenditure on: staff salaries and benefits; contracted or purchased services; other resources including books and teaching materials; welfare services; and other current expenditure such as furniture and equipment, minors repairs, fuel, telecommunications, travel, insurance and rents.
  • public current expenditure on primary education as percentage of total public current expenditure on education
    This indicator shows the relative share of public current expenditure on primary education within overall public current expenditure on education.
  • public current expenditure per pupil on primary education as percentage of GNP per capita
    Measures the average cost of a pupil in primary education in relation to the country’s GNP per capita. In other words, this is the share of primary education unit cost in the GNP per capita.
  • public expenditure on education as a percentage of GNP
    Total public expenditure on education at every level of administration according to the constitution of the country, i.e. central, regional and local authorities, expressed as a percentage of the gross national product.
  • public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure
    Total public expenditure on education at every level of administration according to the constitution of the country, i.e. central, regional and local authorities, expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services etc).
  • pupil
    Refers to a young person who is enrolled in an educational programme. For the purposes of this Monitoring Report, ‘pupil’ refers to a child enrolled in primary school, whereas children or adults enrolled at more advanced levels are students.
  • pupil/teacher ratio (PTR)
    Average number of pupils per teacher at the level of education specified in a given school year. When data are available the calculation of the pupil/teacher ratio is based on teachers and pupils expressed in full-time equivalent.
  • purchasing power parity (PPP)
    The rate of currency conversion into US$ that eliminates the differences in price levels among countries. Thus, when expenditure on GNP for different countries is converted into a common currency by means of the PPP, it is, in effect, expressed at the same set of international prices so that comparisons between countries reflect only differences in the volume of goods and services purchased. In other words, this means that a given sum of money, when converted into US$ at the PPP rate (PPP$), will buy the same basket of goods and services in all countries.
  • repetition rate by grade
    Proportion of pupils enrolled in a given grade in a given school-year who study in the same grade the following school-year.
  • school life expectancy
    Number of years a child is expected to remain at school, or university, including years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrolment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education.
  • school-age population
    Population of the age group which officially corresponds to the relevant level of education, whether enrolled in school or not.
  • survival rate
    Percentage of a cohort of pupils who enrolled in the first grade of an education cycle in a given school year and who reach a given grade either with or without repeating a grade.
  • teacher or teaching staff
    Number of persons employed full-time or part-time in an official capacity for the purpose of guiding and directing the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of his/her qualification or the delivery mechanism, i.e. whether face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) or who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions (e.g. parents).
  • total debt service
    Sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, or interest paid in short-term debt, as well as repayments (repurchases and charges) to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • trained teacher
    Teacher who has received the minimum organized teacher training (pre-service or in service) required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country.
  • transition rate to secondary education
    Number of pupils admitted to the first grade of secondary education in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of pupils enrolled in the final grade of primary of education in the previous year.
  • youth literacy/illiteracy rate (estimated)
    The number of literate/illiterate young adults aged 15–24 years expressed as a percentage of the total youth population aged 15–24 years. A person is considered literate/illiterate if he/she can/cannot read and write with understanding a simple statement related
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