Consultation - Report 2011

The 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report on armed conflict and education.


A public consultation on the 2011 Report was held during February and March 2010. See below for more information, including the summary of submissions. The final report will be on-line soon.


  • 2 February 2010: Kick-off consultation meeting together with the GMR team at IIEP, Paris. Room II, from 3.00pm to 5.30pm. Everyone is welcome.
  • 2 February – 28 February 2010: Public consultation open to all via email. Each Monday, a summary of the previous week’s responses will be posted online.
  • Mid-March 2010: Summary remarks and results of the consultation to be posted on the GMR website.



Many of the countries furthest from achieving the EFA goals have recently been or are currently in conflict. As the 2010 EFA Report shows, around one-third of the world’s 72 million out-of-school children live in only 20 conflict-affected countries.

Through a review of existing research and new data analysis the 2011 Report will highlight the ways violent conflict affects education, as well as the ways unequal access and poor quality education can aggravate conflict. At the same time, education can help to promote peace and stability. As the concept note explains, the Report will examine:

  • local and national approaches to protecting children and young people’s education even in conflict-affected situations;
  • designing and delivering education in ways that promote peace and stability;
  • conflict-affected countries’ need for international support, and innovative approaches to delivering aid where political, security and financial risks are high.

We include below a list of questions on areas where we are particularly keen to identify further resources. These questions are not intended to be exhaustive of issues covered in the Report; please feel free to send any information relevant to the theme of education and violent conflict. 

Thank you for your time and interest in the Report.


Can you provide data availability and analysis on the impact of conflict on education in any of the following areas:

1. Conflict settings where reliable data have been collected: What approach was used to collect data (eg, through innovative use of technology)? What does an analysis of these data show (including, for example, on socio-economic inequalities and ethnic, linguistic and religious marginalization), and how has the analysis contributed to planning?

2. Household surveys or other data sources that could be used to assess the impact of conflict on education (either related to recent conflicts, or the legacy of historical conflicts): including for evidence of school destruction and death or forced migration of students, teachers and other education personnel? Indicators such as enrollment, dropout, disruption to attendance, school closure, transportation disruption are of particular interest.

3. Teacher attrition, which is likely to be accentuated by conscription, conflict-related death or forced migration?

4. Demographic changes within countries as a result of conflict, such as changes in fertility rates, primary-school-age and youth population, rural-urban migration and cross-border migration?

5. Early childhood, such as under-5 death rate, malnutrition, and low birth weight before, during and after a conflict?


Can you provide evidence on the impact of policies to protect education in conflict situations and promote post-conflict reconstruction of education systems, including on:

6. Major interventions that have prevented and/or responded to attacks on education, including protecting schools, students, teachers and other education personnel from attack?

7. Examples where international legal instruments, human rights agreements or peace agreements between warring parties have been used to improve education during or after conflict?  

8. Failures or successes of international and local civil society organizations in providing education during conflict and in the transition to peace – including programmes for children, youth or adults that have subsequently been integrated into national systems?

9. The particular education challenges facing internally displaced people and refugees in developing countries, how these challenges have been addressed, and studies on education being provided or denied to refugees and asylum seekers in developed countries?

10. Child protection programmes, and demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) programmes, that have incorporated education, or have had an effect on educational outcomes?


Can you suggest evidence on the influence of education on violent conflict, and on promoting peace and stability, including on:

11. how education can aggravate conflict, and the channels through which education has such an influence?

12. the ways in which education promotes peace, security and stability?

13. the link between different types or levels of violent conflict and education, including instances where state-level violent conflict has spilled over into gender-, school-, and community-based violent conflict, with significant negative effects on education?

14. the ways in which education systems have been transformed to foster peace and / or prevent relapses into conflict, such as desegregation of schools, choice of language of instruction, curriculum development, teacher training, etc?

15. the results of educational initiatives to promote peace, including programmes associated with citizenship, multiculturalism, and social responsibility, and ones aimed at foster an appreciation of human rights, diversity and non-violent conflict resolution?


National and international financing of education in conflict-affected countries

16. Limited national financing tends to put the burden of paying for education directly on families. Are you familiar with any major aid programmes in conflict-affected countries aimed at lowering household costs of education?

17. Education is increasingly recognized as an integral part of international humanitarian responses. Yet funding levels are extremely low. What are the reasons for this and what are the critical elements for scaling up humanitarian aid to education? Can you suggest examples where greater attention has been given to education as part of a humanitarian response?

18. Do you know of any good examples where donors have supported the short-term need for education at the same time as supporting the long-term objective of state-building? What methods have they used to achieve this, and is there any evidence on the results for education?

19. Donor countries are increasingly adopting approaches that attempt to link their defense, diplomacy and development activities. Can you suggest country experience with such approaches that have had either negative or positive effects on education?

20. Are you aware of non-traditional sources of funding – such as philanthropic organizations, non-DAC donors, remittances from diaspora, and the private sector – for education in conflict-affected countries?


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