Working Papers on Education Policy

The Education Policy Working Paper Series are designed to nurture the international debate about a wide range of education policy issues.

Paper 1. Overview of the Role of Private Providers in Education in Light of the Existing International Legal Framework

This paper aims at giving an overview of private education – notably for-profit private education and the legal issues at the international level. How can the commercialization of education be reconciled with internationally recognized human rights? This paper aims at giving an overview of the legal issues arising from the increase of private stakeholders in the education sector while suggesting how a private actor should consider financing or delivering education.

Paper 2. The Privatization of Education in Developing Countries. Evidence and Policy Implications.

This paper reviews key findings from empirical research on the effects of specific modes of privatization of the school provision, particularly in developing countries. It presents a definition of privatization, elaborates on the multiple modes that privatization may take in the schools’ sector in relation to diverse policy goals and reviews findings from prior research on this issue. It then discusses some methodological issues that commonly arise when reviewing international evidence, presents a synthesis of findings and offers lessons learned.

Paper 3. A model for obtaining ICT indicators in education

This working paper, proposes a conceptual framework for obtaining ICT indicators in  education  which  is  defined  by  a  set  of  distinctive  features:  a  holistic  and systemic approach, a flexible and comprehensive strategy of analysis and, lastly, a willingness to monitor and set benchmarks to promote innovation.



Education Policy Reviews

The Education Policy Reviews are designed to provide technical assistance in carrying out a precise analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the education system, drawing on the existing knowledge base, and with the overall goal of formulating policy recommendations in particular in the areas in which UNESCO can offer direct technical assistance.

They also aims at stimulating international debates around a wide range of education policy issues and objectives, including promoting equity, quality and relevance in the context of Education 2030. 

Albania Education Policy Review: Issues and Recommendations

This report provides an overview of education in Albania including the structure of the education system, relevant legislation and information on equity and quality. The three priority domains are then explored: curriculum development and reform; ICT in education; and  teacher and school leadership policies. In each domain, the main policy issues are identified, in light of the data analysed, and a series of recommendations for action are elaborated. Cross-cutting issues are identified and two analytical tools are proposed for the prioritization of the recommendations. The report also identifies possible future areas for international cooperation in the context of SDG4-Education 2030.

Zambia Education Policy Review: Paving the Way for SDG 4 – Education 2030

This Zambia Education Policy Review focuses on five policy domains, identified by the educational authorities as national priorities in relation to the Zambia’s Vision 2030: 1) system-wide policy and planning; 2) teacher policies and development; 3)  technical education, vocational and entrepreneurship training; 4) youth and adult literacy and education, and; 5)  monitoring and assessment of learning achievement.

The review provides an overall assessment of the national education system, an in-deep analysis of the main policy issues in the five policy domains, and a related set of recommendations to enhance sector’s performance. As a first policy review in Africa, this work provides a model for UNESCO-led capacity development within the framework of the SDG4-Education 2030. This initiative has been financially supported by the CapED programme.

Education in Thailand. An OECD-UNESCO Perspective, September 2016

This report synthesizes the findings and corresponding policy recommendations by encouraging Thailand to focus on four priority areas to prepare students from all backgrounds for a fast-changing world. The first is to set clear, common standards for all students through a revised and improved curriculum. The second priority is to build capacity to reliably assess students across the full range of competencies needed for success in life and in learning. Third, Thailand needs to develop a holistic strategy to prepare teachers and school leaders to deliver education reform, including implementing the revised curriculum, and to tackle teaching shortages in the most deprived areas. The final challenge is to create a comprehensive information and communications technology strategy to equip all Thailand’s schools, teachers and students for the 21st century.

Malaysia Education Policy Review, Abridged Report, May 2013 

The abridged version of the Malaysia Education Policy Review presents a brief account of an overall performance of the education system in comparative perspective. It then aims at providing suggestions and consolidated recommendations for the improvement at the system level in the areas of teacher development, curriculum development, assessment and examinations, as well as in areas like ICT’s in education and technical and vocational education. It also provides useful references for other countries to the unique experience of efforts deployed by Malaysia in its bid for “Vision 2020” through formation of high quality human resources. An updated technical annex provides a useful methodology to carry out an education policy review in the context of Education 2030.

St. Kitts and Nevis Education Policy Review, March 2016

This document synthesizes the findings and corresponding policy recommendations of the education system of St. Kitts and Nevis. The review is both an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the education system and a proposal of a set of recommendations intended to address the policy issues identified during the review process. The review covered four policy domains: 1) academic staff policy; 2) curriculum development; 3) teaching and learning environments and 4) policy and planning including M&E policies. The selection of these policy domains closely align with the renewed emphasis placed on quality and equity by the new global education agenda, Education 2030. This has been the first policy review in the GRULAC region; St. Kitts and Nevis continues to spearhead policy reform and provide an exemplary model for the Caribbean region and beyond.

The following education policy reviews will be published during the third quarter of 2017: Guatemala, Peru and Sudan.


Other Publications

  • UNESCO Bangkok EPR publications
    The publications and reports gathered on this page were published within the framework of programmes or projects administered by the Education Policy and Reform Unit, UNESCO Bangkok.
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