Equity and Inclusion
The introduction of the GEQAF underscores educational achievement (quality) rather than just attainment (participation) as a determinant of the holistic development impact of education. It also underscores the reality that, in a nutshell, inequity of education quality and of effective learning amounts to unequal development. Equitable and inclusive education quality and learning effectiveness are therefore increasingly recognized as essential for creating and sustaining inclusive and equitable societies. In line with international human rights treaties, guaranteeing all the right to education is not enough.
What is required is for all to be guaranteed the right to quality education and effective learning opportunities. Yet globally, a range of factors continue to deny millions of children, youth and adults the right to quality education and effective learning(See: forms of exclusion). As an entry point to education, general education bears the most formidable social equity imperative than all other levels of education and training. It is not only a gateway to education and training itself, but is also a gateway to inclusive and sustainable development. Identifying and redressing factors of inequity and exclusion in general education is therefore critical.
This Analytical Tool aims at supporting Member States to diagnose, analyze and identify critical factors of inequalities and exclusion in their general education systems and on the basis of the analysis, to design remedial interventions at all levels of the system. The paramount question that the analytical Tool addresses is: How well does our general education system assure all learners equity and inclusion in quality education and effective learning?
Diagnosis and analysis
Understanding the situations of inequalities and exclusion in education in our general education systems and in the country
1. Is there any difference in people’s educational opportunities on the basis of socially ascribed or perceived differences, such as gender, economic condition, ability, language, place of residence, social origin, ethnic origin, disability, nationality, etc.? What are the most significant factors of exclusion in our context? Which categories of people tend to experience exclusion more in education? Between which categories of people do wide inequalities exist? (See: dissagregated data on exclusion)
2. What are the critical points in the general education cycle at which exclusion begin to strongly manifest? What precedes these points and can it be aborted? What are the critical points in the general education cycle at which inequalities begin to strongly manifest? What precedes these points and can it be aborted?
3. How is exclusion manifest for those who experience it? How do inequalities manifest?
Policies and strategies to address inequalities and exclusion in education
1. What are the existing policies, programs and interventions in education that are intended to address exclusion? What is the evidence that they are effective? What are some of the persisting forms of exclusion if any and how are they being addressed?
2. Which current interventions –laws, policies, structures of the system, financing and operational frameworks, programmes etc– are redressing exclusion? What is the nature of that impact? Where is the evidence? How do we sustainably monitor the evidence?
3. Beyond the education system –health, social, legal services etc– what current interventions have an impact on exclusion in education? Where is the evidence? How do we sustainably track the evidence?
4. Based on your analysis of all of the above questions, what are the major gaps, obstacles, contradictions and dilemmas in your country’s efforts to provide quality education and effective learning experiences equitably and inclusively? What are some of the ways to fill the gaps, remove the obstacles, resolve the contradictions and negotiate the dilemmas?
Priorities for action
1. What are the required actions to deal with the priority constraints to inclusive and equitable provision of quality education and effective learning experiences?
2. What are the most crucial next steps we need to take to improve the effectiveness of the education system to address inequalities and exclusion?
3. What are the roles of different stakeholders in taking these step(s)?