Different teaching methods
Teacher-centred and -directed pedagogies: traditional ‘chalkand-talk’ teaching; learners having a passing role; lecture-driven pedagogy relying on rote-learning and memorization (UNESCO 2004).
Open-ended and discovery-based pedagogies: these involve high-level cognitive skills such as comprehension, the application of knowledge, divergent thinking and problem solving. Some or all of the following features may be seen in these pedagogies, e.g.: child-centered, active learning; peer tutoring among learners; teacher- and learner-constructed learning materials; regular and ongoing in-service training and peer mentoring for teaching; ongoing feedback, monitoring and evaluation; strong links between education programmes and the community; focus on learning rather than teaching (UNESCO 2004, p. 153).
Structured teaching: a combination of direct instruction, guided practice and independent learning (consisting of ‘presenting material in small steps, pausing to check for student understanding and eliciting active and successful participation from all’ learners); particularly appropriate for learning reading, math, grammar, mother tongue, sciences, history. It can be adapted to young learners as well as slow learners of any age. (UNESCO 2004)
Others: e.g. multi-grade teaching, play-based learning, scaffolding, child-initiated learning, project-based or theme-based learning, distance learning, classroom and outdoor learning